Montažni, rizomski remiks Wikipedije u kojem se naglašava naklonost transgreisvnom, kultnom, grotesknom, fantastičnom i avangardnom. Osim predvidljivih odrednica (ili manje predvidljivih - tko je primjerice Eve Babitz?), možete primjerice, naći popis svih filmova s nesimuliranim seksom, popis filmova (kojih začudo ima jako puno) u kojima se glumci u filmu obraćaju gledateljima filma, popis poznatih scena s golotinjom itd.
The Art and Popular Culture Encyclopedia is a nobrow encyclopedia for the loftiest of intellectuals and the most jaded hedonists. It explores the hidden links between "mainstream" and "underground" culture.
The encylopedia, a Wikipedia remix, is built along these themes and sensibilities and keywords as well as these artists and theorists.
- "In the illusory babels of language, an artist might advance specifically to get lost, and to intoxicate himself in dizzying syntaxes, seeking odd intersections of meaning, strange corridors of history, unexpected echoes, unknown humors, or voids of knowledge… but this quest is risky, full of bottomless fictions and endless architectures and counter-architectures… at the end, if there is an end, are perhaps only meaningless reverberations." --Robert Smithson
- "Method of this work: literary montage. I have nothing to say only to show." -- Passagenwerk (1927 - 1940) by Walter Benjamin
- The "rhizome" allows for multiple, non-hierarchical entry and exit points in data representation and interpretation. --Mille Plateaux - Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari, volume 2 of Capitalisme et Schizofrénie (1980)
- Contrary to the guidelines of Wikipedia (of which this encyclopedia is a remix), this encyclopedia allows original research and has a publication bias favoring appreciative criticism.
- In biographies, lots of attention is given to romantic involvements (cherchez la femme and cherchez l'homme) and patronage.
- Geography: Europe, United States, cross-fertilization between the Anglosphere and Francosphere.
- Body genres
- Preference for otherness and alterity
- Namesakes: importance of homonymy and paronymy are important and strenghten self-referentiality of the encyclopedia.
- General: bias towards the cultish, the transgressive and the nobrow; stereotypical representations
- Music: bias towards black music and underground music, see category World Music Classics
- Film: bias towards cult films, a kind disregard for Academy Awards
- Fiction: bias towards cult fiction and transgressional fiction, disregard for Nobel prizes, a bias towards film adaptations
- Art: bias towards the transgressive, erotic, fantastique and grotesque; *Genre: Fantastique preferred over fantasy.
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- Marianne (60,382 views)
- List of films that break the fourth wall (58,073 views)
- Female nude (42,008 views)
- Futurism (32,387 views)
- Love Letters of Great Men (30,905 views)
- The Swing (painting) (29,734 views)
- Unsimulated sex in film (29,576 views)
- Current events (26,668 views)
- Erotic art (26,510 views)
- Love magic (26,337 views)
- Erotica (26,262 views)
- History of erotic photography (25,714 views)
- Erotic literature (24,258 views)
- Greenleaf Publishing (23,454 views)
- Nocturne in Black and Gold – The Falling Rocket (23,048 views)
- Ancient erotica (22,939 views)
- Marquis de Sade (22,505 views)
- Nobrow (20,972 views)
- Avant-garde (19,828 views)
- Georges Bataille (19,707 views)
- Frontal nudity (19,474 views)
- René Magritte (19,231 views)
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- Sex (18,316 views)
- Stereotypes of white people (18,157 views)
- Modernist literature (18,063 views)
- Nothing is True, Everything is Permitted (18,049 views)
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- Photography (10,754 views)
- Sex organ (10,738 views)
- Situationist International (10,694 views)
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- Wet Dream Film Festival (10,659 views)
- De geschiedenis van de erotiek: van holbewoner tot Markies de Sade (10,650 views)
- 16th century (10,607 views)
- Antonin Artaud (10,563 views)
- American modernist literature (10,526 views)
- List of counterculture films (10,516 views)
- Woman (10,511 views)
- Auteur theory (10,486 views)
- Eve Babitz (10,478 views)
- Adonis Kyrou (10,375 views)
- 1960s (10,343 views)
- France (10,327 views)
- Nudist film (10,306 views)
- Art film (10,294 views)
- Alice Prin (10,286 views)
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List of films that break the fourth wallIn the early days of "talkies", the Marx Brothers' stage-to-screen productions often broke the fourth wall. In their 1932 film Horse Feathers, for example, when Chico sits down at a piano to begin a musical interlude, Groucho turns to the camera and deadpans "I've got to stay here, but there's no reason why you folks shouldn't go out into the lobby until this thing blows over."
By the 1940s, breaking the fourth wall was accepted in popular culture, as evident in the appealing "Road to..." movies with Bob Hope, Bing Crosby and Dorothy Lamour. Hope or Crosby often addressed the audience with a wisecrack, letting them in on the joke or with an irreverent comment about the film's producers.
The fourth wall is sometimes included as part of the narrative, when a character discovers that they are part of a fiction and 'breaks the fourth wall' to make contact with their audience, as seen in films like Tom Jones, which won the Academy Award for Best Picture in 1963, Woody Allen's Annie Hall (with Marshall McLuhan) and The Purple Rose of Cairo
Mel Brooks frequently breaks the fourth wall in his movies for comedic effect. The climax of Blazing Saddles features the characters crashing into the set of "another" production. In Robin Hood: Men in Tights, the characters review the script of the movie during the archery competition scene. Spaceballs features several examples including reviewing the script, a character hitting a camera, and viewing a copy of the movie on an "instant cassette" that was released "before the movie [was] finished."
A good example of metafiction can be found in the film Stranger Than Fiction, in which Will Ferrell's character Harold is able to hear the voice of the film's narrator. His attempts to discover the identity of this woman, aware of every action he takes, becomes the plot of the film.
The fourth wall was broken twice both versions of the 2000s film Funny Games by Michael Haneke.
List of films that break the fourth wall:
- Airplane! - Robert Hays, as Ted Stryker, looks into the camera and says "What a pisser." Also Kareem Abdul-Jabbar, who plays the copilot, breaks character (within the script) to make a reference to his real career in basketball.
- Alfie - The titular character (Michael Caine) talks to the audience often, beginning with the very first scene. The remake starring Jude Law also uses this technique.
- The Amazing Mr Blunden - over the end credits, all of the cast (in character) deliver their various cheery or not-so-cheery goodbyes directly to the camera and the audience.
- Amélie - The main character looks at the camera and explains that she likes to search for small details that people do not notice in the cinema, and how she dislikes old American movies in which a driver does not look at the road while driving.
- National Lampoon's Animal House - While observing a Faber College co-ed undressing through her dormitory window, a ladder-perched John Belushi acknowledges the camera by glancing back over his shoulder and raising his right eyebrow.
- Annie Hall - Woody Allen breaks the wall by asking the audience direct questions. He has been often quoted in interviews as portraying this as homage to Groucho Marx. Whether this truly qualifies as breaking the fourth wall is debatable, as his addresses to the audience are isolated monologues akin to a narration. He does, however, address the audience during the famous scene where he produces Marshall McLuhan while in a theater line and says to the audience, "if only life were like this." He also speaks to the audience this way in other films, such as Love and Death.
- Anguish (film) - Somewhat is similar to the Neverending Story as it could not be seen as technically, breaking the "fourth wall", but does feature around a complex plot in which the first storyline is shown about a third of the way turning out to be a motion picture being observed by a number of onlookers in a movie theater. When the film ends, we suddenly see the credits scrolling up on a completely different movie screen, together with another completely different cinema audience onlookers observing it before getting up and leaving. Implying that the real storyline was also yet another film within film.
- Asylum - at the close of the film, Geoffrey Bayldon's character looks directly to camera as he comments "Got to keep the cold out - as Doctor Starr used to say..."
- Austin Powers: The Spy Who Shagged Me - At the start, Austin talks to the audience about how his wife was really a fembot. The titular character and his superior, Basil Exposition, try to explain the workings of time travel to each other before Austin says "I've gone cross-eyed." Basil replies that it's best not to think too much about how it all works, and turns to the camera and says, "That goes for you all, too" as Austin grins sheepishly at the camera. Later, Powers also addresses the audience when he introduces a musical performance by Elvis Costello and Burt Bacharach. After the credits, a shot of the cliff from which Mustafa fell is shown, with Mustafa saying, "Hello up there. Is the movie over?" before describing the symptoms of his fall, a callback to earlier in the film.
- Austin Powers in Goldmember - When speaking with Mr. Roboto, Austin continuously misreads the character's onscreen subtitles due to various object(s) in the scene "blocking" them from view. On seeing a mobile model of a Godzilla lookalike a Japanese Man ends his conversation with a fellow onlooker by addressing the auidence and winking at the camera. Also at the end of the movie all the characters are at a movie theatre watching their movie premiere.
- Beerfest On waking up to find he has had a drunken night of sex with Cherry (Mo'Nique), after he confused her for Naomi (Candace Smith) Barry Badrinath (Jay Chandrasekhar) scoffs to the camera that he knew all the time.
- Bill & Ted's Excellent Adventure - At the end of the movie, when Bill and Ted (who barely know how to play guitar) are practicing with their band, "Wyld Stallyns", Rufus turns to the camera and says apologetically, "They do get better."
- Blazing Saddles - Sheriff Bart (Cleavon Little) speaks to the camera several times, and, at one point, rides his horse past a full orchestra playing the score for the movie. An old woman takes a break from being beaten by thugs to remark to the audience, "Have you ever seen such cruelty?" Hedley Lamarr (Harvey Korman) asks rhetorical questions while looking into the camera, then says, "Why am I asking you?" Later Lamarr tells his group of henchmen, "You will only be risking your lives, whilst I will be risking an almost certain Academy Award nomination for Best Supporting Actor!" Near the end of the film, the characters leave the fictional realm of Rock Ridge and enter the actual Warner Bros. studio, literally breaking a wall in the process. One character, just before he punches the director of another film, shouts "Piss on you! I'm working for Mel Brooks!" When Lamarr tries to escape into a movie theater, the movie he watches turns out to be Blazing Saddles itself, and he sees that the hero is still on his trail.
- Bordello of Blood - As before the Crypt Keeper speaks directly to the camera, while one character mentions he feels like he's in a bad episode of tales from the crypt.
- Bogus At the story's conclusion Bogus (Gérard Depardieu) having observed Albert (Haley Joel Osment) leave with Harriet (Whoopi Goldberg) from his mother's graveside, suddenly looks directly at the camera and explains to the audience how odd it is that when it comes to farewells, there are none, imaginary friends like him are just forgotten, unlike introductions, he states although that's sad he can't complain, as that's his job. He starts to walk away, then looks round saying if anyone watching needs him...he's available. We then see him stroll off into the horizon, before switching to another scene of him coming across another child in need who he greets and introduces himself to this girl/boy.
- Broadway Melody of 1938 included a performance by then-popular singing star Sophie Tucker. During Tucker's major musical number at the end of the film, several neon signs in the background change to read "Sophie Tucker" even though Tucker was not appearing as herself in the film.
- Bugsy Malone - following a devastating ambush on his gang, a distraught Fat Sam advises his loyal Jewish henchman Knuckles that they are to carry on as if everything is alright, during which he lapses into his native Italian ("tutta casa sono buono"). A puzzled Knuckles asks him what he means. "Read the subtitles", advises Fat Sam, wearily. An on-screen subtitle reads "Everything's hunky dory", and an understanding Knuckles comments in Yiddish "Oh, al is is git."
- A Bug's Life - During the end credits they show animated bloopers where characters screw up as if they were real actors.
- Carry On up the Khyber - At the very end, Brother Belcher (Peter Butterworth) looks straight at the camera and says, "Of course, they're all completely mad you know."
- Casual Sex - At various points in the film Stacy and Melissa look at the camera when they are saying certain things about either a person, or an event. Examples of this would be at the beginning of the film when Stacy and Melissa talk about their sex life while standing in front of a black screen talking to the audience. Another example would be when Matthew and Melissa are laying in the sand and Matthew says that he cannot be with her, Melissa looks right at the camera and says "I really wish you hadn't seen that."
- The Cat in the Hat - At the end, the cat is seen to have been narrating the entire film. When he sees the camera centered on him, he smiles sheepishly and leaves.
- Clerks II - When Jay is bored, Silent Bob gets his boom box and plays "Goodbye Horses". While the song plays, Jay gets interested and acts like Buffalo Bill from The Silence of the Lambs while staring at the camera and tells the viewers in a sarcastic way that he wants to engage in sexual intercourse with "us".
- A Christmas Story Ralphie looks right into the camera and smiles when he gets away with the lie he told his mother about the icicle hitting him in the face.
- Confidence - During the opening credits, Jake Vig (Edward Burns) the main protagonist looks directly at the audience in two separate opening scenes and explains, the rules of Confidence tricks and the slang words used behind it. He also narrates the story for us, not just for the character of Travis (Morris Chestnut), as noted after Travis has left the scene and Jake continues narrating.
- Crank - At one point, the protagonist reads the onscreen subtitles in order to understand what a Chinese man is saying.
- Cradle 2 the Grave - During the closing of the film, under the end credits; Archie and Tommy riff on various subjects, including who will star in the movie version of their lives, they mention Anthony Anderson & Tom Arnold and how they hope neither will play them since the collabration of both stars was a negative thing for the film Exit Wounds. The in-joke being that Archie and Tommy are played by none other than Anthony Anderson & Tom Arnold, with Exit Wounds being the previous work of the film makers with most of the cast of that motion picture...being featured in this one.
- The Creation of the Humanoids - At the film's conclusion, the two major characters learn that they are robots, and are offered the chance to be upgraded with the ability to reproduce. The character of Dr. Raven addresses the camera and tells the audience that of course the "operation" was a success, or the audience "wouldn't be here".
- Cromwell - After the beheading of Charles I, the film ends with an actor breaking character and speaking to the audience, asking them initially if they're all right after having watched the execution, and then discussing the historical aftermath of the events in the film.
- Demon Knight - The Crypt Keeper in the opening and closing segments of the motion picture speaks directly to the camera (much like in the TV show)
- Demolition Man - Simon Phoenix (Wesley Snipes), after stealing weapons from a museum, turns and addresses the audience.
- The Devil's Advocate (film) - As the film ends John Milton announces to the camera with a sly grin, "Vanity...definitely my favorite sin."
- Dawn of the Dead - Features a trailer which simulates the film projector reel stopping and starting before suddenly breaking, with a series of shadowy figures, which turn out to be zombies who begin appearing behind the movie screen, to start pawing it. In the closing credits, the zombies appear to be charging directly at the camera.
- Dickie Roberts: Former Child Star - Near the end of the credits, David Spade tells the audience thanks for watching the film, and it's fine to leave your popcorn behind because that's what the movie theater's employees are for. He also tells you to stop acting like you're reading the credits because they're only there for legal reasons anyhow.
- Doc Savage: The Man of Bronze – Doc Savage (played by Ron Ely) will on occasions grin directly to camera, at which an animated light will flash off of his teeth, accompanied by a musical “ping!”, the more clearly to denote his heroic status. A particularly good example comes in the opening credits, directly after the opening line of the theme song – “Have no fear, the Man of Bronze is here!” – is sung. Also, during the climactic hand-to-hand fight between the antagonists, the differing styles of combat are each introduced by an on-screen subtitle.
- Dr. Phibes Rises Again - at the close of the film, Phibes sings Somewhere Over The Rainbow. The action of the film takes place several years before the release of the 1939 The Wizard of Oz, in which the song first appears.
- Dr. Terror's House of Horrors - during Biff (Roy Castle)'s terrified flight from the theatre where his jazz show has become a fiasco in the "Voodoo" story, he runs past a wall on which is posted the actual quad advertising poster for Dr. Terror's House of Horrors (in a neat touch, the names of the cast are replaced by the names of their characters).
- Dodgeball - Ben Stiller's character, White Goodman, addresses the audience between credit rolls, and makes fun of the "good always triumphs" convention. He then proceeds to give the audience a "special show for the trip home".
- Don't Be a Menace to South Central While Drinking Your Juice in the Hood - The characters constantly break the fourth wall. In the first 5 minutes, the protagonist, Ashtray, AKA "Tray" (Shawn Wayans), asks his mother, "Will I ever see you again?" to which she says, "Sorry honey, but you know there ain't no positive female roles in these movies." Later, Tray parodies a scene from Boyz N the Hood in which Cuba Gooding, Jr.'s character swings his fists in anguish. When Tray's girlfriend asks what he is doing, he says "Tryin' to win best actor in the Soul Train awards."
- Dungeons & Dragons (film) - When Dwarf Elwood Gutworthy (Lee Arenberg) is told he's payment must wait, he turns to the auidence and shakes his head grumbling "That's a terrible way to do business"
- Empire Records - Lucas (and one one occasion, Mark) will occasionally address the audience with comments, such as "Always play with their minds."
- Europa - The film begins with a narrator that tells us what is going to happened while counting to 10 as hypnotizing us."
- Explorers - During the credits, alien child Wak states that he can tell the audience is observing him, as he can feel the popcorn being thrown at him.
- Fat Albert - The characters state that they have lines to say, they are cartoons, and that somebody has to write a script for them to do things, early in the movie. Also at the end, Fat Albert (Kenan Thompson) appears to pop out of the screen and tells the audience to watch the end credits.
- Father of the Bride - The first shot of the movie pans through the party room in the wedding until it ends up on George (Steve Martin), who, while tying his shoes, introduces us to the story of the film, then tells us the story as it happens, even continuing in a voice-over.
- Ferris Bueller's Day Off - Ferris (Matthew Broderick) addresses the audience directly on several occasions, including a famous scene at the end where Ferris comes out in his bathrobe, looks directly into the camera, and says "You're still here? It's over. Go home."
- Fiddler on the Roof - At times, the background action freezes, allowing Tevye (Topol) to talk to the audience about "the other hand."
- Finding Nemo - During the end credits there are three kids and one of them swims through a space in the rolling credits. The next one swims through another space in credits. the last is nervous and slowly makes her way through another space in the credits but then gets bumped by an oncoming credit.
- The Flintstones in Viva Rock Vegas - In the beggining of the film, we see the Universal Pictures logo, then the camera flies away from it and into the alien spaceship. Then Gazoo looks out the window, sees the logo and says "Did anybody notice those giant letters flying by?"
- Fight Club - Throughout the film, Edward Norton acts as the narrator. In one point, he and Tyler (Brad Pitt) look directly into the camera and provide character-based exposition. In this scene, Tyler is seen splicing frames from a pornographic movie into a family film. At the very end of the movie, the film appears to flicker and slide around, followed by a split-second shot of a man's genitals, presumably spliced into the film like Tyler would do. At various other points during the movie, the film appears to flicker and almost break. Also, at the start of the final scene of the film, Tyler says "Ah, flashback humor", reminding the audience that the same scene was glimpsed at the start of the film.
- Friday the 13th: The Final Chapter - One scene simulates the film projector reel suddenly breaking, and a shadowy figure suddenly showing up directly behind the movie "screen".
- Friday the 13th Part VI: Jason Lives - On discovering Tommy and Co. are going to jason's grave, an elderly character turns to the camera and states "Some kids have a strange idea of entertainment!"
- Funny Games - When Paul (Arno Frisch) is directing Anna (Susanne Lothar) to locate her dead dog, he turns and winks at the camera. In another scene, after he and Peter have taken the family hostage, Peter turns to the camera and asks the audience whether they will bet on the family's survival. After Anna seizes the rifle and shoots Peter (Frank Giering), Paul uses a remote control to "rewind" the movie and prevent Anna from killing Peter. Paul also occasionally references his attempts to match his actions with standard movie plot developement. The movie ends on Paul looking directly at the camera with a cruel, wicked smile.
- Funny Man - There are at times during the movie when the Funny Man Speaks directly at the camera or at times just looks in its direction as if his antics are to make those watching sit up and take notice. In one instance he gives a frustrated look after failing to shoot a lady with a blunderbuss, as she keeps unknowingly moving out of his firing line. During the closing credits a song called "Funny Man" is played, during which the Funny Man suddenly starts talking over the top of this song telling the audience to amongst other things, sing along (as well as, amongst other things, challenging the audience to a fight). After the last of the credits have finished, we see Funny Man standing in a garden. He suddenly glares directly into the camera and says something along the lines of, "How many times do I have to tell you? There's NO rest for the bloody wicked!" He then walks off camera.
- Gangster No. 1 - At one point Gangster 55 (Malcolm McDowell) goes the restroom and urinates with his glass of champagne sitting on the floor near the urinal, some of his urine splashing into the glass. He is then about to take a drink from the urine-sprinkled champagne when he changes his mind, looks into the camera, and angrily demands of the viewer "What do you take me for?, A cunt?" before dropping his cigar into the drink and sneering at the camera as he walks away.
- Garfield - At the end of the film, Garfield talks to the audience about himself.
- George of the Jungle - The movie's narrator frequently interacts with the characters, particularly late in the film when the poacher Thor interrupts the narrator's lines and starts arguing with him.
- George of the Jungle 2 - The narrator frequently references that Brendan Fraser did not appear in the sequel, and also removes Lyle from the movie after Lyle begins to argue against him.
- The Great Muppet Caper - The Muppets completely destroy the fourth wall over the course of the movie: Fozzie Bear makes comments about the opening credits, Kermit speaks directly to the audience about the roles that he, Fozzie, and Gonzo will play, Piggy gets angry at Charles Grodin's character and says "You can't even sing! Your voice was dubbed!", Kermit reminds Peter Falk (a guest star) to get back to the film after a rambling monolouge by the latter, and at one point Kermit and Piggy break character completely and start arguing about her acting skills.
- Gremlins - Father warns the auidence to check under the beds as there might be a gremlin in their house.
- Gremlins 2: The New Batch - In one scene, the projector "breaks", causing the current frame of the film to burn up while a pair of gremlins appear "behind" the movie screen, laughing hysterically. Prompting a character to run into the lobby of the movie theatre to find Hulk Hogan, who is then brought into the film to fight the little monsters, who triumphs and then reassures the cinemagoers, "I'm sorry folks...it won't happen again". In its video release, this scene was changed to simulate the Gremlins changing the TV channel to a John Wayne movie, who shoots the gremlins and restores the film, saying "I don't want these little critters in my movie and you don't want 'em in your TV set...let's start that movie up again."
- The Happiest Millionaire - Butler John Lawless (Tommy Steele) often talks directly to the audience to comment on the action. When his employer, Mr. Biddle (Fred MacMurray), catches his commentary, he believes John is talking to himself.
- Happy Feet
- 1.) After the graduation ceremony, the graduate emperor penguin class began flocking towards the ocean. The camera descends into the crowd of penguins, and they walk by the camera. One of them waves enthusiastically into the camera.
- 2.) Southern Rockhopper Penguin and guru Lovelace (Robin Williams) was being strangled by the six-pack soda plastic rings around his neck. Unable to speak and revealed to be a fraud, Lovelace began acting out charades to tell Mumble (Elijah Wood) and the Adélie Amigos where he got his "talisman." After the group successfully figured out his charades, Lovelace began to lose his balance and stumble about, eventually colliding with the camera.
- 3.) Lovelace narrates throughout the movie, occasionally addressing the audience. "Ladies, avert your eyes, because I've been known to hypnotize."
- 4.) At the end of the final scene, the scene irises out. The iris stops halfway, with the main characters posing for the camera and Ramon mouthing, "I love you!" in the background.
- Hedwig and the Angry Inch During the musical number "Wig in a Box", Hedwig looks at the camera and says "Ok, now everybody!" as the audience is prompted to sing along with the film.
- High Anxiety - The characters acknowledge the camera when it breaks a window while zooming in for a closer shot.
- High Fidelity - Rob (John Cusack) constantly engages in "conversation" with the viewer. For instance, when Rob's ex-girlfriend tells him that she and her new boyfriend haven't had sex "yet", he engages the viewer to try to figure out what she meant and whether she intends to have sex with the new boyfriend.
- The Holy Mountain - At the very end of the film (when the immortals are revealed to be dummies) the Alchemist tells the group that "Real Life Awaits Us" and the camera crew is shown.
- Hooper - At the very end of the movie, just before Sonny (Burt Reynolds) punches the director Roger (Robert Klein) he looks over his shoulder at the audience and gives a little knowing look and shrug.
- Hot Shots! Part Deux - When Topper (Charlie Sheen) becomes angry with Ramada (Valeria Golino) for coming back into his life, she explains, "I had to come. It was a sequel."
- How the Grinch Stole Christmas! - When The Grinch is sneaking into a Who house, the narrator tells us what's happening then The Grinch asks the narrator to speak a little softer then the narrator whispers.
- House of Wax - In this movie, a paddleball man directs his ball towards the audience and invites them to the opening of the wax museum.
- The House That Dripped Blood - in the closing scene, the estate agent played by John Bryans looks straight to camera and suggests that maybe the titular house may be the ideal one for us, but to think very carefully before deciding...
- The Hudsucker Proxy - During the climactic sequence, Moses the clockworker (Bill Cobbs) attempts to manipulate events by jamming his broom into the mechanics of the Hudsucker Building's clock, thus causing time to freeze. He then turns to the camera and comments, "Strictly speaking, I'm never supposed to do this, but have you got a better idea?"
- The Hunchback of Notre Dame - At the end of the film, after the credits, Hugo (Jason Alexander) appears waving to the camera, and yells, "Good night, everybody!" He then laughs, and then it cuts to black.
- Idlewild - The film closes on a music video style song and dance number performed by Percival (André Benjamin) who ends the song looking directly into the camera pointing his finger like a gun at it, as he speaks the last lyric.
- INLAND EMPIRE - The film continually toys with perceptions of the fourth wall through a variety of means; the fourth wall is broken not only through various camera movements (the 180 degree rule is broken several times), but by casting choices (the star is Laura Dern; she is a well known star of other Lynch movies, and both her mother and husband pop up in the film), and mise en scene (cameras come into shot on more than one occasion, actors sometimes look directly at the camera)
- Jay and Silent Bob Strike Back - Jay and Silent Bob talk with Holden McNeil (Ben Affleck) about the movie, McNeil says "A Jay and Silent Bob movie? Who'd pay to see that?" and then the three of them glance at the camera with Silent Bob poorly suppressing a giggle. In addition, when Ben Affleck and Matt Damon are reprising their roles from "Good Will Hunting", they make a joke about having to star in a movie because their friend (Kevin Smith) says they owe him a favor, then they both look directly at the audience for a moment. At another point, the wildlife marshall (Will Ferrell) argues with a policeman about a diamond heist, claiming it sounds like something out of a bad movie, at which point they both directly look at the camera.
- JFK - This film features a very subtle break of the fourth wall. At the end of the film, Jim Garrison (Kevin Costner) gives a speech to a jury about the importance of a society holding its leaders responsible for their actions. As he stares at the jury, the camera dollies sideways and comes to rest in Garrison's line of sight, so that he is looking directly at the viewer for his final line: "It's up to you."
- Josie and the Pussycats - When Alexandra Cabot (Missi Pyle) is asked by her brother what she was doing on the plane (with the group along with Frame and Fred), she responds with "it's in the comic book". As one of Fiona and Wyatt's superiors states that inserting subliminal messages into motion pictures is a far more successful strategy, a subliminal message flashes up stating that "Josie and the Pussycats is the best movie ever" with "Join The Army" written in smaller letters below.
- Kiss Kiss Bang Bang - The main character narrates throughout, acknowledging he is not doing a good job for a movie narrator. At the end of the movie, the audience is told to stick around for the credits and that the best boy is somebody's nephew.
- Kuffs - Throughout the film, whenever main character George Kuffs (Christian Slater) is alone, he looks directly at the camera and speaks to the audience, bemoaning the current situations he's got into (with the exception of the final scene where he speaks whilst cradling his baby daughter). In another scene a series of dubbed sound effects suddenly occurs when George is bickering with his demoted cop partner, Ted Bukovsky (Tony Goldwyn) and the argument leads to a swearing match between them both.
- Layer Cake - Towards the very end of the film, when XXXX (Daniel Craig) is leaving with his girlfriend, he turns to the camera and breaks off from narration to regular dialogue, stating, "My name? If you knew that, you'd be as clever as I am."
- Lemony Snicket's A Series of Unfortunate Events - Snicket, the narrator, keeps telling the people to leave the theater, because the movie is unhappy, and to go see "The Littlest Elf", which he says he thinks they "may be still seating at theater 2".
- The Libertine - The film opens with Johnny Depp's character addressing the audience as a prologue, and telling them that he doesn't want or expect them to like him. He then closes the film by asking what the audience thought of him.
- The Life and Death of Peter Sellers - Quite uniquely, the lead actor (Geoffrey Rush) who plays Peter Sellers assumes the role of other characters in the film (including Stanley Kubrick, Blake Edwards, his doctor and his parents), to deliver a monologue to the audience about how each character regards Sellars.
- The Life Aquatic with Steve Zissou - The film repeatedly allows the audience to see the inner workings of the Belafonte ship set.
- Little Shop of Horrors (1986) - in the closing shot, a bud of Audrey II smiles conspiratorially at the audience from the newly-wed Mushniks' garden. In the original closing sequence, a gigantic Audrey II was to break off its rampage through a major city, notice the camera filming it, and then lunge towards and break it.
- Looney Tunes: Back in Action - After Bugs puts popcorn in an alien helmet, he persuades moviegoers to get a refreshment at the snack bar. Finally, just before the end credits, Porky does his "That's all, folks!" line, but the studio's about to close, so he just says "Go home, folks." Then, the final light goes out, and the movie ends.
- The Mask (film) - At certain points in the film, The Mask (Jim Carrey) speaks directly to the camera. At one point, he gives a melodramatic "last speech" to two gunmen, until a hand pops up from the side of the screen and gives him an Oscar, at which point the Mask goes "You like me! You really like me!" to the audience.
- Mary Poppins - The character of Bert greets the audience at the start of the film, and leads them to the house where the Banks family lives. In a later scene as he is working on his sidewalk chalk drawings, he says "'Ello, art lovers!" and sings a song that explains the concept of a "screever".
- A Matter of Life and Death - In the film, scenes depicting Heaven are presented in black-and-white, while scenes on Earth are in color. When the French character known as "Conductor 71" (Marius Goring) comes down from Heaven to Earth, he feels reinvigorated, looks at the camera, and says "One is starved for Technicolor... up there."
- Medium Cool - After the fatal car accident which ends the film's story, the camera pans to the other side of road - to director Haskell Wexler, who has been shooting the same scene with his camera. The camera pulls in on Wexler and his camera as the screen fades to black.
- Men at Work - When a pair of security guards attempt to subdue Keith David and Dean Cameron at the toxic waste facility, David's character looks into the camera and remarks "Rent-a-cops. I hate rent-a-cops, too!" This is a reference to an earlier line spoken by him, in which he remarks to other characters that he hates cops.
- Monty Python and the Holy Grail - Due to the film's low budget, whenever the script calls for a character to be riding a horse, the character instead play-rides on foot using coconut half-shells to imitate the sound of hooves. In one of the rare extended cuts, Dingo addresses the audience, asking, "Do you think this scene should have been cut?" This spiel continues for a few moments then cuts to other characters who have previously appeared saying why their scene was better and then, finally, to numerous characters (some of whom have not yet at that point appeared in the film) screaming, "Get on with it!" When we meet all of the knights of Camelot (through use of a book), there is a "Sir Not-Appearing-In-This-Film". Later, Sir Galahad (Michael Palin) talks about a man at the Bridge of Death who was also in "scene 24", this scene having been previously introduced by the narrator as "scene twenty-four, which is a smashing scene with some lovely acting." At another point, the Knights escape an animated monster due to a freak heart attack suffered by the cartoonist. At the end of the film a seemingly medieval battle is broken up by police cars and one policeman says, "That's enough, sonny!" and smashes the camera with his hand, whereupon the film "breaks" and the movie ends abruptly.
- Monty Python's The Meaning of Life - During a sketch in the jungle, a native is revealed to be a white man in a white suit who announces that this is the middle of the film. The next scene is of a woman (Michael Palin) sitting in a room, who introduces a scene where the audience has to shout out where they think the fish is. Throughout the next scene, the audience can be heard, saying that the fish is in ridiculous places. The next scene, in which the fish from the first scene in the film say how terrific the last scene was, also state the film has not had much to do with the meaning of life. During the cleanup from the restaurant scene involving Mr. Creosote, one of the waiters gives the audience his view on the meaning of life (which involved urging the camera to follow him through the city and countryside to his rural childhood home), followed by telling the audience off. At the end of the film, the woman returns, reads the meaning of life, and then goes off on a long diatribe on "the jaded, video-sated public"'s lack of taste. She then gives the direction "cue the theme music" - from Monty Python's Flying Circus, which is played on a television set in space.
- Monsters Inc. - During the end credits they show animated bloopers where characters screw up as if they were real actors.
- Monty Python's Life of Brian features Eric Idle, in the end of the film (during the song "Always Look on the Bright Side of Life"), talking to the audience, while the credits appear: "See? The end of the film. Incidentally, a tape of the movie is found on the entrance. Some people have to work to get their money, you know? Who do you think that pays for all this rubbish? They're never get their money back. I told them. I said Bernie, they'll never get their money back".
- Monty Python's And Now For Something Completely Different features many fourth wall breaks, such as a military man (Graham Chapman) interrupting a sketch to say to the filmmakers it was rather silly, telling them to show a sketch he wrote. As the Monty Pythons ruined the sketch, making it silly, he stops it again and shows a cartoon about the army, who got getting "just silly. And quite suspicious.", then saying "show a cartoon!" He appears many times then, such as John Cleese in many places (such as sitting at a desk or being cooked by old ladies), saying "and now, for something completely different", as they changed from a sketch to other rather different.
- Murder 101 - After Pierce Brosnan's character finds that one of his students has not only written and published a murder mystery based on his experiences solving a series of murders, but has also sold the movie rights, one of the other characters says "I wonder who'll play me... Myrtle Streep?" before an off-screen voice says "Meryl Streep" and a boom mike drops into frame. The film ends showing a film being made.
- The Nutty Professor - At the very end, Stella (Stella Stevens) winks at the camera, as she steals away with Julius (Jerry Lewis) carrying a bottle of his secret formula which transforms him into the magnetic Buddy Love. At the very end of the movie; Julius is seen walking towards the camera, he suddenly slips and crashes straight into the camera.
- The Nutty Professor (1996 film) - During the montage after Professor Sherman Klump (Eddie Murphy) has turned into Buddy Love (Eddie Murphy) for the first time, Buddy is seen watching a group of ladies exercising, whereupon he looks round at the camera and grins.
- Nutty Professor II: The Klumps - At one point one of the characters breaks the fourth wall.
- O Lucky Man! - Lindsay Anderson's surreal film contains many instances of the fourth wall being broken. Frequently the camera will cut to a recording studio where Alan Price and his band are recording the film's soundtrack while the director looks on. Later, the film's main character Mick Travis (a role Malcolm McDowell reprised from Anderson's earlier If...) hitches a lift with the band in their bus, and visits the same studio. In the final scenes, Travis attends an open audition for a film after being told to try his luck. Lindsay Anderson is casting and Travis is told to pose with a book and a machine gun, exactly how McDowell was portrayed in the promotional images for If....
- Ocean's Twelve - Characters frequently remark how Tess Ocean (Julia Roberts) bears a striking resemblance to Julia Roberts, her actor; they later have Tess impersonate Julia Roberts to assist in a heist. During the credits, "Tess Ocean" is credited as having played Julia Roberts.
- Oh! What a Lovely War - before taking the 'shot' of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, the photographer (Joe Melia) turns and grins slyly at the audience. The same character later sings the song Goodbye-ee to camera.
- On Her Majesty's Secret Service - When the girl he is chasing gets away in the prologue segment, Lazenby's Bond smiles ruefully at the camera and says "This never happened to the other fella!" (referring to Sean Connery as Bond in previous movies).
- One Week - Buster Keaton's wife is in the bathtub when she drops the soap onto the floor. She is distraught when she realizes that she can't reach it without revealing herself. The cameraman places his hand in front of the lens long enough for her to retrieve it, earning him a look of gratitude.
- Orlando - The title character frequently looks at the camera to comment to the audience about the situation at hand.
- The Passion of Anna - Each of the four main actors (Max von Sydow, Liv Ullman, Erland Josephson, and Bibi Andersson) are shown, at different points in the film, in a studio as themselves, answering an interviewer's questions about their characters in the film and how they are portraying them.
- Persona - Halfway through the film the camera turns away from the characters to reveal the film's director (Ingmar Bergman) and his crew. Later, the "film" appears to burn and melt after one actor breaks character.
- Pokémon 3: The Movie - When Ash gets pushed of the cliff, Team Rocket helps him. When Ash asks why they helped him Jessie replies that they cannot allow the series's "main character" to be killed.
- Pretty in Pink - When Duckie (John Cryer) notices one of the girls at the prom (Kristy Swanson) looking and smiling at him, he looks around, points to himself, then looks into the camera with a bemused look on his face before going to dance with her.
- The Producers (2005) - After Max leaves, Ulla and Leo are alone. When Leo becomes uncomfortable, he moves away from her. She asks why "Bloom go so far camera right." During the song "That Face," Leo is singing directly to the camera during parts of the song as if addressing the audience. Max tells Roger de Bris: "I've seen you at rehearsal always moving your lips along with the actors." While Max is saying this, Roger is moving his lips along with the actor Nathan Lane who plays Max. Max points this out by gesturing at Roger who sniggers. At the end of the credits the entire cast sings "Goodbye" to the audience, including Mel Brooks (the original creator of The Producers) who tells the audience to "get out, it's over!" Also, at the end of the credits, Franz Liebkin (Will Ferrell) reminds the audience to buy Mein Kampf, "available at your local Barnes and Noble, Borders Books, or Amazon.com."
- The Purple Rose of Cairo breaks the wall in a different way. One of the characters (Mia Farrow) is in love with the lead actor (Jeff Daniels) of the film she is watching in the theater. After watching the film many times, at one point the actor turns and adresses her, and then steps out of the film and into her life.
- The Railway Children - At the end of the film, the cast wave to the camera while the lead character, Roberta, writes "The End" on a chalkboard.
- Reefer Madness - At the end, Dr. Carroll warns that marijuana addiction could happen "[points to one of the people listening] to your son, [points to another] or yours, [points and speaks directly at the camera] or YOURS!"
- Repossessed - When Nancy Aglet (Linda Blair) is first introduced and gothic music begins playing, Nancy freezes and looks around, wondering where the music is coming from. Later, to demonstrate her powers, she dares that she will "break the film", at which the "projector" freezes at the current frame and "burns" up.
- "Road movies" - Bob Hope and Bing Crosby frequently made comic asides to the camera, such as saying, "At our age? Paramount wouldn't dare!" In Road to Utopia, they are traveling across frozen land on dogsled, when a mountain appears. Hope says, "Get a load of that bread and butter!" Crosby remarks, "Bread and butter? That's a mountain!" Then the words "Paramount Pictures" appear on the mountain and Hope comments, "It may be a mountain to you, but it's bread and butter to me!" In Road to Rio, Jerry Colonna appears in a number of quick clips, leading a cavalry charge to "rescue" Hope and Crosby. They finally arrive right at the end of the film after Hope and Crosby's issues have been resolved. Collonna looks in the camera and says, "What do you know? I'm too late! Exciting, though, wasn't it?"
- Robin Hood: Men in Tights - As a comedy, the film mentions "other Robin Hood films" in general, or in particular, during the archery contest where Robin checks "the script" to see if he gets another shot, causing everyone else to pull out their movie script and do the same. Additionally, the camera is frequently disrupted, for example by crashing through a window or being bumped into with a pole.
- Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves - At the end, Friar Tuck (Michael McShane) tells the audience to "Get out of here!" as it is time to celebrate.
- The Rocky Horror Picture Show - Several times, Dr Frank N Furter (Tim Curry) addresses the camera with passing comments like "how nice!", and "it's not easy having a good time, even smiling makes my face ache!" During the dinner scene, Dr. Scott turns directly to the camera and says "I knew he was in with a bad crowd, but this is worse than I suspected. Aliens!"
- Saving Silverman - Wayne Lefessier (Steve Zahn) addresses the audience at the begining, when a flashback of his birth occurs he appears on the right to point out which woman is pregnant with him.
- Scary Movie 4 - At the beginning, when George dies, The camera zooms in on Cindy looking down at his body, however the camera begins to veer off to the side, and she runs in front of it again.
- School of Rock - During a song performed in the end credits by Jack Black and his fellow young cast members, young Caitlin Hale (Marta, aka "Blondie") sings "The movie is over / But we're still onscreen..." And afterwards, Black's character sings, "The movie is over / Credits got to roll / Look at that name there! / I do not know that guy / Now get out, get out now / It's time to go; other people gotta come in for the next show, you're getting in the way / The cleaning guy's coming in to sweep the sticky stuff off the floors."
- Scrooged - As the credits roll at the end, Frank Cross (Bill Murray) comes forward from the singing crowd and asks theatre audiences to sing along, saying, "All right, everybody start singing. Okay, how 'bout this side of the theatre? No, no, how 'bout this side? Let's hear the men. Okay, the REAL men. Let's try the women. No, the REAL women. All right, YOU, who was making noise throughout the whole movie!"
- Sesame Street: Follow that Bird - After the Grouch Anthem at the beginning of the film comes to an end, Oscar turns to the audience and says "Well anyway, you've seen the best part of this movie. So sit back, relax, and have a rotten time" before going back into his trashcan.
- Severance - After consuming some Psychedelic mushrooms Steve (Danny Dyer) starts to hallucinate, during which he suddenly becomes aware of the camera and on catching sight of it jolts backwards in surprise.
- Shirley Valentine - The title character narrates much of the movie to the audience, describing this to other characters as "talking to the wall".
- Shriek If You Know What I Did Last Friday the Thirteenth - Martina (Majandra Delfino) remarks that the cast is in a "parody situation", and then recounts the rules for survival. At another point, there is a brief montage showing the entire cast's reaction to a comment, and the movie's crew is shown as well. At the end, Dawson (Harley Cross) says that he and Martina are safe, "At least until the sequel." And finally, the entire post-credit lag is a fourth wall-break.
- Singin' in the Rain - At the end of the film, the actors sing and dance in front of a billboard for the movie.
- Singles (film) - Matt Dillon's character frequently looks at the camera to comment to the audience about the situation at hand.
- Sixteen Candles - Farmer Ted (Anthony Michael Hall) looks at us and says "This is getting good".
- Sling Blade - Karl Childers (Billy Bob Thornton) often monologues to the audience. When asked about these techniques on Inside the Actors Studio, Thornton said that he was simply attempting to connect with the audience and that he did not understand why some film purists criticize the breaking of the fourth wall.
- Spaceballs - There are several instances where the actors acknowledge the movie itself, such as Dark Helmet (Rick Moranis) accidentally killing a camera man during a lightsaber duel, crashing into a camera during a close-up, etc. At one point, after a lengthy, obvious piece of plot exposition by Colonel Sandurz (George Wyner), Helmet turns to the camera and says "Everybody got that?" At another, when they have lost track of Lone Starr (Bill Pullman) and Princess Vespa (Daphne Zuniga), Dark Helmet and Colonel Sandurzz borrow "Spaceballs, the Video" from their ship's rental parlor to find out where their quarry has gone, fast-forwarding through previous scenes until they reach the current scene, which depicts them looking at a video of themselves ... looking at a video of themselves (et cetera). Later in the movie, Yogurt (Mel Brooks) reveals the several pieces of (fictional) "merchandise" made for the film to our heroes, including Spaceballs the Cereal, Spaceballs the Coloring Book, and Spaceballs the Flamethrower. Also, as Lone Starr leaves, he asks if they'll ever meet again. Yogurt replies by saying they'd definitely meet again in the sequel Spaceballs II: The Search for More Money. Later, the enemy general discovers and remarks that instead of capturing the protagonists, they have instead captured "their stunt doubles". Finally, Mel Brooks as President Skroob arrives breathless on the bridge of Spaceball One, after having been depicted running through the ship's corridors. As he catches his breath, he says, "This ship is too big. If I walk, the movie will be over."
- Space Jam - Bill Murray appears late in the film as himself, saying that he got into the movie because the producer was a friend of his. In another scene, Mr. Swackhammer (animated; voiced by Danny DeVito) looks at the camera and says (referring mistakenly to Bill Murray), "I didn't know Dan Aykroyd was in this picture." When Bugs Bunny is chased by Elmer Fudd, he stops and says to the audience "I'll be with you in a minute, folks, after I'm done with nature boy here." At another point, Tweety gives a sly look to the audience when he begs Michael Jordan (playing himself) to help the Looney Tunes characters. Daffy Duck even spits on the camera as he talks into it because of his speech impediment. In one scene, where the monster known as Bang runs to the net to make a slam dunk, he says "Don't try this at home" to the audience. When Bugs kisses Lola Bunny, she acts like Daffy and pulls down the next scene. At the end of the movie, after the credits finish rolling, Bugs delivers the classic "That's all Folks" line, followed by Porky Pig (who usually says it himself), followed by Daffy, then the Nerdlucks. Then Michael Jordan pops up from the bottom from the screen and asks "Can I go home now?".
- Spiceworld - While the ending credits are rolling, the Spice Girls look at the audience, referring to them as "tiny people" and address an (unspecified) audience member, asking where their clothing was purchased.
- Spy Hard - When the con artists are torturing a character representing Macaulay Culkin (but played by another child actor), they make several comments about getting back at him for Getting Even With Dad, My Girl, and My Girl 2 (which Culkin wasn't in, but the thugs don't care anyway). In the introduction song, Weird Al Yankovic sings to the viewer that the movie is called Spy Hard and that they are watching Spy Hard.
- Spy Kids 3D - In the introduction, Floop (Alan Cumming) reads the audience a summary of the original Spy Kids, calling it story about "thumb-thumbs" and asking the audience if they thought they liked the story. He also says to go buy refreshments at the theater, a comment which was not removed for the film's video release.
- Stark Raving Mad - In the movie's opening, Ben McGewen (Seann William Scott) speaks to those watching about just what exactly is going to occur. While throughout the film, Ben freezes a specfic scenerio to explain to the audience about a certain character's history or the current chain of events.
- Support Your Local Sheriff! - Jake (Jack Elam) narrates the epilogue of the film direct to camera, and then self-consciously attempts to strike a dashing pose in time for the titles to roll.
- The Secret of My Succe$s - During the opening credits Brantley Foster's parents speak directly to the camera.
- The Sweetest Thing - An after the credits have rolled scene, shows four of the main members of the cast sitting on a couch, on noticing the camera they speak directly to it, telling the audience that; "[The movie]'s over...go home!"
- Taking of Beverly Hills - Ed Kelvin (Matt Frewer) does an opening naration about Beverly Hills, concluding that if your a cop like him "...You just can't afford to live here...makes you think...doesn't it?!"
- Tales from the Crypt - at the film's close, the Crypt Keeper (Sir Ralph Richardson) turns to camera after seeing the other main characters off to Hell. "Who's next?", he inquires of the audience. "Perhaps...YOU?..."
- Team America: World Police - When Gary Johnson is riding his motorbike, the camera zooms in too far and knocks Gary off the motorbike.
- That Thing You Do - The Hotel employee Lamar gives us a knowing glance and smile at the end of the film.
- The Emperor's New Groove - Kuzco interrupts the film to remind the audience that the story is about him, not about Pacha.
- Thoroughly Modern Millie - When the characters are thinking, they look directly to camera, and their thoughts appear on silent cinema-style caption cards. When Millie Dillmount (Julie Andrews) is undressing for bed, she looks coyly at the camera before closing her dressing room door on the audience.
- Three Stooges - In the short film "Rhythm and Weep", Larry turns to the camera while hugging his suicidal sweetheart and says, "This I like. And I get paid for it, too." In another short, the Stooges are stuck in prison, breaking rocks off of Curly's head. When Larry reaches for the next rock, Curly suddenly tells him "that's a real rock" (as opposed to a prop).
- Through the Olive Trees - At several times throughout the film, the camera pulls back to reveal the film crew and director.
- To Be or Not to Be - At the end of the film, the actors come on stage and take a bow, as if the entire film was a performance.
- Toy Story 2 - During the end credits they show animated bloopers where characters screw up as if they were real actors. Also during the same bloopers Flik and Heimlich from "A Bugs Life" are talking to each other about A Bug's Life 2 but then discover that there's not really going to be one.
- Tom Jones - Various characters break off in the middle of their scenes to look into the camera and address the audience. Most famously, Tom Jones (Albert Finney) takes off his hat and hangs it on the camera lens to prevent the audience from seeing his tryst with Mrs. Waters (Joyce Redman).
- Top Secret! - Nick Rivers (Val Kilmer) spews out an absurd summary of the plot of the movie thus far, to which Hillary Flammond (Lucy Gutteridge) replies "I know. It all sounds like some bad movie"; a long pause follows as both actors look directly at the camera.
- Trading Places - After his intelligence is insulted by the Duke brothers ("pork bellies are used to make bacon ... such as you might find in a bacon, lettuce and tomato sandwich"), Eddie Murphy's character gives the camera a direct, meaningful stare.
- True Stories - It includes several scenes in which both David Byrne's unnamed character and Louis Fyne (John Goodman) speak to the camera.
- Two Can Play That Game - Shante Smith (Vivica A. Fox) routinely addresses the camera as she doles out her daily rules for keeping control of a man. At one point, as she and attorney-boyfriend Keith are starting to become amorous in his office, she reaches out to cover the camera with her hand saying, "You know what? This ain't none of yo' business."
- Up Pompeii - Frankie Howerd as Lurcio frequently directly addresses the audience, both informing them of the plot and characters as well as cracking gags. The "reincarnated" Lurcio (as Lurkalot and Private Lirk, respectively) does much the same in the two sequels, Up The Chastity Belt amd Up The Front.
- Videodrome - After seeing himself commit the same act on his television set, Max Renn (James Woods) gets on his knees, points a gun at his head, looks directly at the viewer and says the now infamous catchphrase "long live the new flesh." As soon as he pulls the trigger, the screen goes blank. Also, some characters (Renn included) will look straight into the camera sometimes.
- Volunteers - In one scene, At Toon (Gedde Watanabe) and Lawrence (Tom Hanks) lean out to read the on-screen subtitles of otherwise illegible dialogue.
- Wake Up, Ron Burgundy: The Lost Movie - Steve Carell's character Brick acknowledges the camera filming their vehicle through the windshield, though other characters ignore him.
- Wayne's World and Wayne's World 2 - Wayne Campbell (Mike Myers), Garth Algar (Dana Carvey), and several other characters frequently talk directly to the audience. At one point in Wayne's World, a sadistic baker begins addressing the audience but Wayne breaks in and says, "What do you think you're doing? Only Garth and I get to talk to the camera!" At the end of the first Wayne's World, Wayne and Garth choose three endings.
- What's Up Doc?- At various points in the film, whenever Judy (Barbara Streisand) is speaking to the bewilderment of Howard (Ryan O'Neal), Ryan looks at the camera with a look of anguish on his face. At one point the camera actually zooms in on Ryan who looks directly at the camera asking the audience for "Help!".
- What's Up, Tiger Lily? - At the end of the film, while Katie is explaining to Coop that she has no interest in him physically and has decided to be with Andy, Coop looks directly into the camera just once. Halfway through the movie, Woody Allen is interviewed briefly in regards to the film; the interviewers ask if he could explain what the previous scene was about, to which Woody Allen replies "No" before the film resumes.
- White Water Summer - Alan talks to the audience at various times.
- You, Me and Dupree - An after credit scene shows (Lance Armstrong) himself reading Dupree's self-help book (as Dupree had been reading Lance Armstrong's own novel earlier on), while sitting on a grass lawn. He then looks directly at the camera and wonders aloud how to pronounce his "ness" name and begins trying to find a proper way to pronounce it.
- Young Frankenstein - Igor looks into the camera several times, and even speaks entire lines to the audience.
- Yours, Mine and Ours (1968) - Some of the characters actually talk to the camera, such as Frank (Henry Fonda) sighing at the camera, and Daryl pausing a scene to talk to the audience.
- Oliver Hardy, in innumerable Laurel and Hardy films, looks directly at the camera in despair, seeking audience sympathy at his ongoing endurance of Stan's antics. It is the 'fourth wall' version of his plea: "Why don't you do something to help me!" Additionally, Stan also frequently sobs directly to camera in moments of apparent hopelessness.
- Groucho Marx was also responsible for some of the earliest breaking of the fourth wall in cinema, in films such as The Cocoanuts and Animal Crackers. In The Big Store, Groucho comments to the audience that a dress is red although the film cannot show it the because "Technicolor is so expensive." In Horse Feathers, at the beginning of a musical number, Groucho looks towards the camera and says, "I have to stay here, but there's no reason the rest of you folks shouldn't go out into the lobby until this blows over."
- Larry Fine broke the fourth wall in a Three Stooges short film entitled Rhythym and Weep. The Stooges meet 3 girls and hug them. Larry looks at the camera and says, "This I like, and I get paid for it too!" Additionally, in the Three Stooges short film Outer Space Jitters, he looks into the camera and adds to a spoken comedy routine, "...and don't forget to see Pal Joey, folks!" referring to another film by the same production company, Columbia Pictures.
- Several James Bond films break the fourth wall. On Her Majesty's Secret Service includes a scene in which Bond (George Lazenby) attempts to rescue Tracy Draco (Diana Rigg) but she runs away, prompting Bond to turn directly to the camera and ruefully quip "This never happened to the other fella!" (a reference to Sean Connery, who had previously played Bond). In the original Casino Royale, Miss Goodthighs (Jacqueline Bisset) drugs Evelyn Tremble (Peter Sellers), who imagines he is playing Vesper Lynd's (Ursula Andress) leg like a piano, and in doing so winks at the camera. In a later sequence he looks directly at the camera, mouthing the word 'Help', which appears as a cartoon speech-bubble. In Never Say Never Again Sean Connery turns and winks at the camera at the end of the movie. In Octopussy, Bond (Roger Moore) makes a stop in India near the Taj Mahal and a snake charmer plays the James Bond Theme on his flute, as if the movie character knew that he had theme music. Similarly, a janitor in On Her Majesty's Secret Service whistles the theme tune from Goldfinger. At the end of Live And Let Die, Baron Samedi, who was killed earlier, reappears to salute the audience.
- French director Jean-Luc Godard constantly used character asides, onscreen dialogue concerning story development, and the use of loud, bold text. His films include Une femme est une femme (A Woman Is a Woman), Masculin, féminin, and Week End.
- All Muppet movies have broken the fourth wall in some way, primarily for comedic effect (such as "I hope you appreciate that I'm doing all my own stunts"), or Kermit telling Piggy that she's over-acting.
- C-3PO may have broken the fourth wall in Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back when he is in Echo Base. After Han Solo yells for him to hurry up, C-3PO becomes stuck behind a door that closes on him. He looks at the camera and says "how typical" although it is unknown if this was addressed to the audience or not.
Famous nude scenes
"Nude scene" is a slang term used in to describe a scene in a mainstream (non-pornographic) film which one or more of the actors appears nude on-screen. Female nudity has been less controversial than male nudity in American film for a long time, although the female and male lower genitals are very rarely shown. One famous exception is the brief exposure of the female genitals in the Sharon Stone film Basic Instinct. When females are shown nude, their breasts are, by far, the most commonly exposed "private part", followed by the buttocks. When males are shown nude, the buttocks are shown or the man is shown nude, with his genitals or buttocks obscured by the pose, an inanimate object, or the man is simply shown from the lower back up. If male genitals are shown, it is only very briefly and the shot will usually will be cut from the film prior to release.
An example can be found in the editing process of the film A Home at the End of the World (2004), where a shot of Colin Farrell's penis was deleted. The production company said test audiences were "distracted" or "uncomfortable" when viewing the penis. Recent films have begun to use imitation penises to surprise audiences without actually showing male genitals, or to prevent actors from being embarrassed by size concerns. Adding nudity to films can be seen as a way to increase audience interest. This is also known as fanservice. However, some critics consider the use of nudity to be "cheap" and "gratuitous", and often disapprove that some actresses do to nude scenes in order to be picked for a part or to increase their popularity.
As with nudity, female sexual activity, including female-female activity, is considered more appropriate in film by Americans whose popular culture is primarily biased by the taste of heterosexual men. Males are rarely presented as sex objects when nude in American film. Instead, male nudity is used for humor, shock value, or mild titillation (where the man is not presented fully nude or in a particularly sexual manner).
The exception is gay cinema, which presents men in the same way women are often presented in mainstream film. Overall, America is considerably more offended by nudity, at least it pretends to be, than most European states, Japan, and other 1st-world nations. As with America, however, there is a strong bias toward the presentation of female nudity. America is unique in its high consumption of pornography and popularity of films devoted to nudity, like Strip Tease—coupled with TV shows about stripping where the contestants never remove all layers of clothing, and strong scandal caused by the exposure of so much as a nipple, as when Janet Jackson was exposed on MTV in what has since then become known as "nipplegate".
List (1953 -2004)Films with nude scenes that have attracted significant attention include:
- Alexander (2004). Colin Farrell shows his penis, scrotum and buttocks in a very brief nude scene as he gets into bed.
- About Schmidt (2002). A scene in which Kathy Bates appeared nude while taking a whirlpool bath was much discussed, due to the fact that she was in her fifties and overweight. Jack Nicholson also reveals his buttocks in this film.
- American Beauty (1999). Thora Birch and Mena Suvari each have topless scenes. Kevin Spacey and Wes Bentley each have rear exposing scenes. Annette Bening has implied nudity during a sex scene.
- American Gigolo (1980). First full frontal nude appearance of a major Hollywood actor — in this case, Richard Gere.
- American Pie (1999). Shannon Elizabeth plays a Czech foreign exchange student duped into changing clothes on a webcam broadcast. Elizabeth was displeased that people remembered her thereafter only as the woman who showed her breasts in the movie.
- And God Created Woman (1956). The film opens with a shot of some clothing on a washing line with a nude Brigitte Bardot sun tanning herself beneath.
- Animal House (1978). Featured the infamous scene where Bluto (John Belushi) is on a ladder peering through the window watching Mandy Pepperidge (Mary Louise Weller) undress until comedy prevails.
- At Play in the Fields of the Lord (1990). Hector Babenco directed adaptation of a story of fundamentalist missionaries sent to the jungles of South America to convert the Indians, includes numerous nude scenes with the indegenous population, as well explicit scenes with most of the cast — Tom Berenger, Daryl Hannah, Kathy Bates (twelve years before About Schmidt), and nine-year-old Niilo Kivirinta as the son of John Lithgow and Kathy Bates.
- Basic Instinct (1992). Known for a notorious police interrogation scene in which Sharon Stone, wearing a tight-fitting skirt with no underwear, uncrosses her legs, revealing her genitals. Also shows a scene of a dead man, with his penis exposed.
- Ben-Hur (1925). Roman soldiers pull off a woman's top, exposing her breasts; rear nudity of galley slave; bare-breasted maidens in parade scene.
- Beyond the Valley of the Dolls (1970). Features all main female cast members in nude scenes in addition to numerous extras nude.
- Blowup (1966). First mainstream (and British) film to feature female pubic hair — in this case, Jane Birkin's.
- The Blue Lagoon (1980). A remake of the 1949 film, adding several nude scenes: actors Brooke Shields (or her body double) and Christopher Atkins, as well as the children who played them in the first third of the movie, Glenn Kohan and Elva Josephson.
- Body Of Evidence (1993). Features Madonna and Willem Dafoe in numerous nude scenes.
- Boogie Nights (1997). Features Mark Wahlberg, Julianne Moore, Heather Graham, and others in numerous nude scenes, some feature simulated sex and, most famously, a thirteen-inch prosthetic penis.
- Borat:Cultural Learnings of America for Make Benefit Glorious Nation of Kazakhstan (2006). Sacha Baron Cohen and Ken Davitian wrestle naked in a hotel room, hallway, and in full view of a conference, in a scene that appears to have been inspired by the nude wrestling scene in Women in Love. However, Cohen's genitals were blocked by a superimposed black bar.
- British Sounds (1970). In this experimental film by Jean-Luc Godard, there is a scene with an extended close-up of a woman's genitals.
- Bully (2001). Features Rachel Miner and Bijou Phillips in various full-frontal nude scenes.
- Calendar Girls. Women of various ages raise money by creating and appearing nude in a calendar.
- Caligula (1979). This film, about a Roman emperor, featured nudity as well as masturbation (with ejaculation) and explicit sex scenes.
- Child Bride (1938). Twelve-year-old Shirley Mills appears nude in an infamous skinnydipping scene.
- A Clockwork Orange (1971). Graphic sexual imagery and rape pervade this film.
- Contempt (1963). Features several extended shots of Brigitte Bardot's bare buttocks in parodic reference to her nude scenes in And God Created Woman.
- The Cook, the Thief, His Wife & Her Lover (1989). Helen Mirren and Alan Howard appear nude for most of their screen time. They begin by secretly having sex in a toilet and in a later scene they hide together in a meat freezer while nude.
- Crash (1996). Deborah Kara Unger is nude in several scenes. While in bed with husband James Spader, her labia majora are clearly visible to the camera. Spader then mounts her from behind and penetrates her anally (simulated) as she continues talking.
- The Crying Game (1992). Pivotal to the movie's plot is the sex scene between Stephen Rea and Jaye Davidson, since it shows Dil's (Davidson's) genitals and reveals her to be a transgendered woman rather than a cisgendered woman.
- A Daughter of the Gods (1916). The first film in which a major star (Annette Kellerman) appeared fully nude.
- Devil in the Flesh (1986). Maruschka Detmers appears casually nude during several scenes in this film of Raymond Radiguet's novel by Italian director Marco Bellocchio. In one noted scene, Detmers fellates her co-star, Federico Pitzalis (unsimulated).
- Don't Look Now (1973). Features an explicit scene where Donald Sutherland and Julie Christie are about to get dressed after having made love.
- The Dreamers (2003). Eva Green plays several long scenes in the nude as do her male co-stars, Michael Pitt and Louis Garrel. In one scene, Louis Garrel masturbates to a photograph of Marlene Dietrich, in another Eva Green handles Michael Pitt's penis. In one close-up shot, Eva Green's labia majora are clearly visible to the camera in close-up and Pitt runs his fingers through her pubic hair.
- Ecstasy (1933). Hedy Lamarr famously skinnydips in the lake and runs through a forest in the nude. Years later, her millionaire husband reportedly tried to buy every print and destroy them.
- Equus (1977). Featured extended full frontal and rear nudity from Peter Firth and Jenny Agutter.
- Eyes Wide Shut (1999). This film attracted pre-release publicity for nude scenes of then-married couple Nicole Kidman and Tom Cruise, as well as extensive nudity during an orgy scene, featuring nude women wearing masks. The film opens with a shot of Kidman disrobing, letting a dress fall off her body, revealing her bare buttocks as well as her breasts and pubic hair in a mirror. Early on, both Kidman and Cruise apprear topless as they prepare to get dressed for a night out (somewhat reminiscent of Donald Sutherland and Julie Christie's famous conjugal postcoital nude scene in Nicolas Roeg's Don't Look Now). Cruise also tends to a nude woman who lies incapacitated on a sofa from a drug overdose. Shocked by Kidman's revelation of a sexual fantasy (in which she again appears nude), he walks out and later attends an orgy, but remains fully clothed (at one point he is ordered to strip, but another participant intervenes on his behalf). Some film critics accused Warner Brothers of censorship when they reedited the film for an R-rating after the death of director Stanley Kubrick.
- Fast Times at Ridgemont High (1982). The scene in which Phoebe Cates emerges from a swimming pool and removes her bikini top has been endlessly imitated and parodied.
- The Gift (2000). Brief scene where Katie Holmes is seen topless wearing a thong right before her character is murdered.
- Hair (1979). Nude group singing.
- Havoc (2004). Anne Hathaway appears in one graphic nude scene as well as several tamer ones. Hathaway was known as a Disney "good girl," starring in the Princess Diaries films, before taking on this role. The second Princess Diaries movie was released the same year. Bijou Phillips also appears nude several times.
- I Am Curious (Yellow) (1967), Vilgot Sjöman and Lena Nyman. Explicit portrayal of sex and nudity in a non-pornographic film.
- If... (1968), Malcolm McDowell. The film features frontal male nudity in a shower scene by three of the film's lead actors. The female lead, Christine Noonan also appears nude, grappling with McDowell during a feral sex scene. There is also a surreal sequence of the headmaster's wife somnambulating nude through the school hallways at night.
- Inspiration (1915), Audrey Munson. The first film featuring its leading actress in the nude.
- Intimacy (2001.) Kerry Fox and Mark Rylance play lovers and share a number of lengthy love scenes featuring full frontal nudity from both actors. This film is also notable as the first mainstream film to feature unsimulated fellatio.
- James Joyce's Women (1985), Fionnula Flanagan appears casually nude. In one explicit sequence, she is seen lying on a bed and ecstatically masturbating her hirsute labial folds to the point of orgasm in full view of the camera while reciting a monologue (Molly Bloom's famous erotic soliloquy from Ulysses). In this scene, she appears to be actually stroking and penetrating her labia majora with her fingers. Flanagan also appears in another scene squatting over a chamber pot with her pubis exposed and urinating.
- Je vous salue, Marie (1985). Controversial film by Jean-Luc Godard which presents Myriem Roussel as a modern Virgin Mary who appears nude (and in close-up) for much of her screen time.
- Killing Me Softly (2002). Heather Graham and Joseph Fiennes appear nude in numerous sex scenes.
- Last Tango in Paris (1972). Maria Schneider appears fully and casually nude in several long scenes. In one scene, Marlon Brando pins her to the floor facedown and spreads margarine in between her exposed buttocks before penetrating her anally (simulated). In a later scene, he rubs her breasts and pubic region with a wet sponge while she bathes in a tub. There is also a scene in an elevator which features a close-up shot of Maria Schneider lifting up her dress and revealing her pubic hair.
- Los Años Bárbaros (1998). Hedy Burress appears in a full frontal nude scene as she runs across the beach to jump in the ocean. Since the film takes place during the 1960s, director Fernando Colomo had a large tuft of faux pubic hair attached over Burress's shaved crotch because he believed few women shaved their pubic hair in the 1960s.
- Lovers (1991). Victoria Abril and Jorge Sanz share a highly erotic love scene in which there is a closeup of Sanz' penis which Abril fondles.
- Macbeth (1971). Francesca Annis performs Lady Macbeth's famous sleepwalking soliloquy in the nude, baring her buttocks. A young male child is also shown, fully nude, being bathed.
- The Man Who Fell to Earth (1976). The film features David Bowie, Candy Clark and Rip Torn in a number of explicit nude scenes, including full frontal.
- Maurice (1987). James Wilby and Rupert Graves appear fully nude, both rear and frontal, in a gay postcoital scene on a hotel bed.
- Maya (1966). Fourteen-year-old child actor, Jay North, strips naked after falling into the river, revealing his bare bottom.
- Medium Cool (1969). First mainstream American feature to show full male and female nudity.
- Monty Python's Life of Brian (1979). Brian (Graham Chapman) appears naked on a balcony in front of a crowd exposing his penis and minute later Judith (Sue Jones-Davies) appears with him in the full frontal nudity scene.
- 9 Songs (2004). Margo Stilley and Kieran O'Brien are nude for much of the movie, which also includes graphic footage of unsimulated fellatio, cunnilingus, masturbation and penetrative sex.
- Nineteen Eighty-Four (1984). Suzanna Hamilton strips in the woods and performs two other long scenes casually in the nude for about two thirds of her screen time. Her full-frontal nudity is frankly presented with particular emphasis on her lean, waifish upper torso, curvaceous mesomorphic hips and thick, dark pubic and underarm hair.
- 1900 (1976). Features a scene in which the characters of Robert DeNiro and Gerard Depardieu visit a prostitute. Both actors are seen completely nude as the woman visibly fondles both their penises. The scene was edited out for the US release of the film, and later reappeared on the 1993 NC-17 re-release. An earlier scene (that was never edited out of the U.S. release) with the two characters as young boys examining their own penises was wildly criticized as child pornography.
- The Pawnbroker (1964). First American film to show a woman (Thelma Oliver) nude from the waist up and still be granted a Production Code seal.
- The Pillow Book (1996). One of many Peter Greenaway's films to feature full frontal nudity, this time by Ewan McGregor (who also appears nude in Trainspotting, Velvet Goldmine, and Young Adam).
- Planet of the Apes (1968). Charlton Heston is stripped, in rear view; one of the few instances of adult nudity in the last months of the Production Code era. His character is also featured in a nude bathing scene.
- Popi (1969). Alan Arkin stars in this controversial G-Rated "family film" with several, extended nude scenes by underaged male leads - Miguel Alejandro and Reuben Figueroa.
- Prénom Carmen (1983). Maruschka Detmers appears nude for much of her screen time, including one close-up shot of her pubic area, while her lover puts his hands between her legs.
- Pretty Baby (1978). Featured nude scenes of actress Brooke Shields, who was eleven and twelve during the shooting, which raised allegations of child pornography.
- Promises! Promises! (1963). Jayne Mansfield becomes the first mainstream American star to appear nude in in the sound era, baring her breasts and buttocks.
- Prospero's Books (1991). Nearly all of the inhabitants of Prospero's island are nude in this deconstructionist interpretation of Shakespeare's The Tempest.
- Quadrophenia (1979). Jimmy (Phil Daniels), the main mod character, enjoys a full-frontal bath in a private cubicle of a public bath-house when his enjoyment is cut short by the sound of a rocker (the mods' cultural enemies) singing Gene Vincent's "Be-Bop-A-Lula" in the next cubicle. It incenses Jimmy, who bursts into a rendition of "You Really Got Me" by mod favourites, The Kinks. Jimmy and the rocker are both seen fully naked in their cubicles as they compete in a raucous singing display. The baths' caretaker angrily bangs on their doors and shouts 'What do you think this is ? The bleedin' Eurovision Song Contest?' Later, the rocker is revealed to be Jummy's old school-mate, Kevin (Ray Winstone).
- Return to the Blue Lagoon. A very similar sequel to The Blue Lagoon, starring Milla Jovovich and Brian Krause, with similar nudity.
- The Rocky Horror Picture Show (1975). Nell Campbell is seen topless after she is turned to stone by the Medusa Device.
- Romeo and Juliet (1968). This film caused some controversy for a brief postcoital nude scene featuring its two teenage leads, Leonard Whiting and Olivia Hussey. Whiting exposes his buttocks while Hussey appears topless.
- A Room with a View (1985). Rupert Graves, Simon Callow, and Julian Sands frolic naked around a pond during a swimming scene.
- The Rules of Attraction (2002). Nudity in bathub during suicide scene, nudity in context of sexuality, intercourse, nudity during male masturbation (seen from behind), and nudity at a party (sexualized).
- Savage Messiah (1972). Helen Mirren walks up a staircase, flaunting her voluptuous nude body and striking poses.
- Schindler's List (1993). Shows many nude scenes of Jewish deathcamp prisoners in Auschwitz.
- Shallow Ground (2004). Rocky Marquette is nude throughout the entire film, in much of the film he is also covered in fake blood, only briefly having it wiped off.
- Showdown in Little Tokyo (1991). Rear nudity of Dolph Lundgren. Drugged nightclub entertainer Angel (Renee Griffin) is stripped by Yakuza boss Funekei Yoshida (Cary Hiroyuki Tagawa) of all clothing except her panties, and then fondled from the breasts to the crotch Template:Spoiler warning before being beheaded.
- Showgirls (1995). Elizabeth Berkley performs an intense nude lapdance for Kyle MacLachlan and Gina Gershon. Rena Riffel also contributes an intense nude performance with Berkley at a strip club where they are both employed, and Gina Gershon leads a glitzy topless group dance number before Berkley replaces her as the star of the show.
- Socket (2007) Derek Long and Matthew Montgomery, Several scenes of casual full frontal nudity in this indie gay, sci-fi thriller.
- Splash (1984) Daryl Hannah, playing a mermaid, appears naked to Tom Hanks on an isolated beach and to a group of tourists at the Statue of Liberty.
- Summer with Monika (1953). The first nude scene in postwar European cinema. Harriet Andersson's bare buttocks are seen briefly as she runs over the rocks to skinnydip in a lake.
- Sweet Sweetback's Baadasssss Song (1971), thirteen year old Mario Van Peebles' bare buttocks are seen at the beginning of the film when the character of "Sweetback" is seen visiting a prostitute. The controversial scene limited the film's distribution; it was banned in Australia for years. The scene was revisited 32 years later when Peebles made a biopic about his father, Rated X by an All-White Jury.
- Swordfish (2001). A lingering topless scene featuring Halle Berry was controversial because rumors persist that, in the midst of filming, Warner Brothers executives offered Berry $2 million to do the scene, thinking it would boost the movie's revenue. Berry has said that they paid her $250,000 to expose each breast.
- Tarzan of the Apes (1918). Tarzan (Gordon Griffith), at eleven years old, is nude for much of the first half of the film; the African natives also briefly appear nude.
- 10 (1979). Bo Derek's nudity in 10 is limited to a darkly-lit bedroom scene, but the movie made her an overnight sex symbol and led to a profusion of nudity in her later movies.
- The Terminator (1984). Arnold Schwarzenegger and Michael Biehn appear nude early in the film, exposing their buttocks (Schwarzenegger also shows — although shadowed and seen from a distance — a bit more than just his buttocks). Linda Hamilton also bares her breasts during a love scene.
- Titanic (1997). Kate Winslet poses nude and wears only a diamond necklace for her portrait.
- Two Moon Junction (1988). Sherilyn Fenn and Richard Tyson share steamy nude scenes that feature frontal nudity from both. Kristy McNichol exposes her breasts in two scenes.
- Ultimo mondo cannibal (1977). Lead actors Massimo Foschi and Me Me Lai are nude throughout most of Ruggero Deodato's predecessor to the controversial Cannibal Holocaust, which also contains brief explicit shots of their genitals.
- Une vraie jeune fille (1975). Various explicit shots of Charlotte Alexandra's breasts and vulva, and Bruno Balp's erect penis. The film also contains graphic urination and masturbation scenes.
- The Unashamed (1938). Typical nudist exploitation film of the 1930s, showing bare breasts and buttocks.
- Walkabout (1971). Famous scene showing David Gulpilil, Jenny Agutter and Luc Roeg (as the Agutter's 11-year-old brother) skinny-dipping in a lake in the Australian outback.
- What Do You Say to a Naked Lady? (1970). This film examines the public response to unexpected nudity.
- The Whole Nine Yards (2000). Amanda Peet is seen nude where three hitmen are killed.
- Wild Things (1998). Denise Richards is seen topless in the film during the menage-a-trois sequence. In the director's cut, Richards is topless during a lesbian love scene with Neve Campbell.
- Women in Love (1969). Known for its full frontal nudity in a wrestling match between Alan Bates and Oliver Reed. Glenda Jackson became the first actress to do a nude scene and win an Academy Award for Best Actress.
- Woodstock. Famous skinnydipping scene at rock festival.
Avant-gardenovel or experimental, particularly with respect to the arts and culture. Avant-garde in French was first used in the military sense from the 15th until the 18th century, meaning front guard, advance guard, or vanguard. In the 1910s and the 1920s the term came into its current meaning, meaning pioneers or innovators in an artistic sense. Since the 1960s the term avant-garde has gradually been replaced by experimental, which lacks the political connotations of the term it replaces.
Avant-garde pushes the boundaries of what is accepted as the norm within definitions of art/culture/reality. An avant-garde mentality believes things arise only from the leading edge of reality.
The term avant-garde in an art context was first attested in France in 1825 and the first avant-garde art movement was Realism led by the painter Courbet. From the 1850s until the late 1950s the term avant-garde carried revolutionary connotations, in the sense that its goal was societal change. It was a politically resistant art. Gustave Courbet (1819-77) and other "realists" in the 1840s like Honore Daumier (1808-79) and Jean Francois Millet (1814-75) were some of the earliest advocates of the idea that art could play an emancipatory role in society.
The history of avant-garde avant la lettre starts with the Quarrel of the Ancients and the Moderns, was a literary and artistic quarrel that heated up in the early 1690s and shook the Académie française. It opposed the Ancients (Anciens), who supported the merits of the ancient writers and contended that a writer could do no better than imitate the great examples that had been fixed for all time and the Moderns (Modernes), who supported the merits of contemporary authors.
Contrast with philistinism and kitsch.
Working definitionThe vanguard, a small troop of highly skilled soldiers, explores the terrain ahead of a large advancing army and plots a course for the army to follow. This concept is applied to the work done by small bands of intellectuals and artists as they open pathways through new cultural or political terrain for society to follow. Due to implied meanings stemming from the military terminology, some people feel the avant-garde implies elitism, especially when used to describe cultural movements. This term also disagrees with the thoughts of many people.
The origin of the application of this French term to art is still debated. Some fix it on May 17, 1863, the opening of the Salon des Refusés in Paris, organised by painters whose work was rejected for the annual Paris Salon of officially sanctioned academic art. Salons des Refusés were held in 1863, 1874, 1875, and 1886.
The term also refer to the promotion of radical social reforms, the aims of its various movements presented in public declarations called manifestos. It was this meaning evoked by the Saint Simonian Olinde Rodrigues in his essay "L'artiste, le savant et l'industriel" (1825) which contains the first recorded use of "avant-garde" in its now-customary sense: there, Rodrigues calls on artists to "serve as [the people's] avant-garde," insisting that "the power of the arts is indeed the most immediate and fastest way" to social, political, and economic reform. Over time, avant-garde became associated with movements concerned with art for art's sake, focusing primarily on expanding the frontiers of aesthetic experience, rather than with wider social reform.
For instance, whereas Marcel Duchamp's fountain (a urinal), which he declared a piece of art, may have been avant-garde at the time, but if someone created it again today it would not be avant-garde, because it has already been done. Avant-garde is therefore temporal and relates to the process of art's unfolding in time. Duchamp's work retains its distinction as avant-garde even today, because it marks a historical point in the advancement of the conception of art, relative to the period in which it surfaced. Similarly, "avant-garde" can be applied to the forerunners of any new movements.
The sculpture also can be understood purely in formal terms. It's all white color and sensual curves are apparent. The material is vitreous, smooth, uniform. The curvature of the surface is gentle. The artist specified the orientation at which the object is to be displayed -- rotated 90 degrees from the orientation in which it would normally be encountered. The new orientation places the object's center of gravity lower to the ground. In this new orientation the curvature of the defining edges form a teardrop shape, from the vantage point of the viewer. This new orientation of the object is a choice and an innovation of the artist. While it is a found object, it is not just any found object. The artist's will and the artist's choices are reflected in this sculpture. The choice of this particular object as opposed to some other found object is a reflection of the volition of the artist. The aesthetics of the object, even on their most superficial level, cannot be ruled out as conscious and willful choices made by the artist.
Theorising the avant-gardeSeveral writers have attempted to map the parameters of avant-garde activity with limited success, although one of the most useful and respected analysis of vanguardism as a cultural phenomenon remains the Italian essayist Renato Poggioli's book Teoria dell'arte d'avanguardia of 1962 (released in English as The Theory of the Avant-Garde). Surveying the historical, social, psychological and philosophical aspects of vanguardism, Poggioli reaches beyond individual instances of art, poetry and music to show that vanguardists may be seen as sharing certain ideals or values which are manifested in the non-conformist lifestyles they adopted, vanguard culture being shown to be a variety or subcategory of Bohemianism.
Reflecting on Baudelaire’s complaint that ‘the man of letters is the enemy of the world’ and Mallarmé’s distress over the isolation of the creator in ‘this society that will not let him live’, Poggioli identifies that beyond their non-conformist postures, avant-gardes have historically existed in a state of mutual antagonism towards both the public and tradition. As pioneers, avant-gardists have shunned popularity, seeing those who are popular as producing complacent or compromised work. This is also why avant-gardists have abhorred fashion, judging it to deal in stereotypes, falsehoods and insincere sentiments. So, on the one hand, their iconoclasm has witnessed vanguardists take positions against current trends; but as pioneers they will also adopt a strong ‘down-with-the-past’ attitude. Vanguardists are committed to the New, seeing traditions, institutions and orthodoxies as outmoded prisons of convention.
Taken together, these traits mean that vanguardists are necessarily estranged from society. This has taken several forms: some creators were socially alienated, others felt culturally alienated, others still experienced a form of what Poggioli terms 'stylistic or aesthetic alienation'. It has been common for vanguardists to declare their opposition to the bourgeoisie, in particular, on any or all of these grounds. The vanguard’s antangonism towards accepted values and approaches has also meant that historically their audience has tended to be the Intelligentsia. Poggioli further tries to classify vanguardists according to four conceptual dispositions: Nihilism, Futurism, Decadence.
Other authors have tried to both clarify and push further Poggioli's study, such as the German litterary critic Peter Bürger who published "Theorie der Avantgarde" (released in English as "Theory of the Avant-Garde", translation by Michael Shaw, Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 1984). While the title of Bürger's essay is an explicit reference to Poggioli's, he makes several useful additions to the latter's groundbreaking study, such as the distinction between "historical" (Futurism, Dada, Surrealism) and "neo" avant-garde (Abstract Expressionism, Pop Art, Nouveau Réalisme, Fluxus, etc.).
Peter Bürger's essay also greatly influenced the work of contemporary American art historians such as Benjamin H. D. Buchloh: while older critics like Bürger (or the Italian architectural historian Manfredo Tafuri) view the postwar neo avant-garde as the empty recycling of forms and strategies from the first two decades of the twentieth century, others like Clement Greenberg view it, more positively, as a new articulation of the specific conditions of cultural production in the postwar period. Buchloh, in the collection of essays "Neo-avantgarde and Culture Industry" critically argues for a dialectical approach to these positions.
Avant-garde vs. mass cultureThe concept of avant-garde refers exclusively to marginalised artists, writers, composers and thinkers whose work is not only opposed to mainstream commercial values, but often has an abrasive social or political edge. Many writers, critics and theorists made assertions about vanguard culture during the formative years of modernism, although the initial definitive statement on the avant-garde was the essay Avant-Garde and Kitsch As the essay’s title suggests, Clement Greenberg conclusively showed not only that vanguard culture has historically been opposed to ‘high’ or ‘mainstream culture’, but that it also has rejected the artificially synthesized mass culture that has been produced by industrialization – the pervasive commercial culture of popular music, soap opera dramas, pulp fiction, magazine-illustration, and B movies. Each of these media is a direct product of Capitalism – they are all now respected Industries – and as such they are driven by the same profit-fixated motives of other sectors of manufacturing, not the ideals of true art. For Greenberg, these forms were therefore kitsch: they were phony, faked or mechanical culture, which often pretended to be more than they were by using formal devices stolen from advanced or vanguard culture. For instance, during the 1930s the advertising industry was quick to take visual mannerisms from surrealism, but this does not mean that 1930s advertising photographs are truly surreal. It was a matter of style without substance. In this sense Greenberg was at pains to distance true avant-garde creativity from the market-driven fashion change and superficial stylistic innovation that are sometimes used to claim privileged status for these manufactured forms of the new consumer culture.
A similar view was likewise argued by assorted members of the Frankfurt School, including Theodor Adorno and Max Horkheimer in their essay The Culture Industry: Enlightenment as Mass-Deception (1944), and also Walter Benjamin in his highly influential The Work of Art in the Age of Technical Reproduction (1936). Where Greenberg used the German word kitsch to describe the antithesis of avant-garde culture, members of the Frankfurt School coined the term mass culture to indicate that this bogus culture is constantly being manufactured by a newly emerged Culture industry (comprising commercial publishing houses, the movie industry, the record industry, the electronic media). They also pointed out that the rise of this industry meant that artistic excellence was displaced by sales figures as a measure of worth: a novel, for example, was judged meritorious solely on whether it was a best-seller, music succumbed to ratings charts and the blunt commercial logic of the Gold disc. In this way the autonomous artistic merit so dear to the vanguardist was abandoned and sales increasingly became the measure, and justification, of everything. Consumer culture now ruled.
Despite the central arguments of Greenberg, Adorno and others, the term ‘avant-garde’ has been appropriated and misapplied by various sectors of the culture industry since the 1960s, chiefly as a marketing tool to publicise popular music and commercial cinema. It is now common to describe successful rock musicians and celebrated film-makers as avant-garde, the very word having been stripped of its proper meaning. Noting this important conceptual shift, major contemporary theorists such as Matei Calinescu in Five Faces of Modernity: Modernism, Avant-garde, Decadence, Kitsch, Postmodernism (1987), and Hans Bertens in The Idea of the Postmodern: A History (1995), have suggested that this is a sign our culture has entered a new post-modern age, when the former modernist ways of thinking and behaving have been rendered redundant.
Nevertheless the most incisive critique of the vanguardism versus mass culture view was offered by the New York critic Harold Rosenberg in the late 1960s. Trying to strike a balance between the insights of Renato Poggioli and the claims of Clement Greenberg, Rosenberg suggested that from the mid-1960s onward progressive culture ceased to fulfill its former adversarial role. Since then it has been flanked by what he called 'avant-garde ghosts' to the one side, and a changing mass culture on the other, both of which it interacts with to varying degrees. This has seen culture become, in his words, ‘a profession one of whose aspects is the pretense of overthrowing it.’
ExamplesAvant-garde in music may refer to an extreme form of musical improvisation in which little or no regard is given by soloists to any underlying chord structure or rhythm, such as free jazz. However, it may refer to any form of experimental music, even those working within many of the traditional structures.
By some assessments, avant-garde art includes street art, for example graffiti and any other movement which pushes forward the accepted boundaries. It has even moved into building construction projects, one example of which is the proposed Museum Plaza project in Louisville, Kentucky. Featuring a radical design overlooking the Ohio River, this three-tower project will include a diagonal elevator and a 22nd floor public park.
RelevanceProponents of the avant-garde argue it is relevant to art because without these movements art itself would stagnate and become dormant and merely craft, repeating the same style over and over. The term is most commonly applied to the visual arts, fashion, film, and literature, but
Other examples of avant-garde
- Alexander Rodchenko (Russian artist)
- Paul Cezanne (painter)
- Pablo Picasso (painter)
- Henri Matisse (painter)
- Giorgio de Chirico (painter)
- Georges Braque (painter)
- Jackson Pollock (painter)
- Willem de Kooning (painter)
- Claude Monet (painter)
- Édouard Manet (painter)
- Alejandro Jodorowsky (director)
- e.e. cummings (poet)
- Louis Armstrong (American pioneer of jazz)
- John Coltrane (American jazz musician)
- Miles Davis (American jazz musician)
- Laurie Anderson (American composer)
- Antonin Artaud (French playwright)
- James Joyce (writer)
- Samuel Beckett (Irish Playwright)
- André Breton (French author)
- Stan Brakhage (American filmmaker)
- Harold Budd (American composer)
- John Cage (American composer)
- Guy Debord (French artist and philosopher)
- Kayo Dot (American avant-rock band)
- Piet Mondrian (Dutch artist)
- Marcel Duchamp (French artist)
- Einstürzende Neubauten (German industrial band)
- Diamanda Galas (American Musician, composer and performance artist)
- Wassily Kandinsky (Russian artist)
- El Lissitzky (Russian artist)
- Lydia Lunch (American singer, poet, writer and actress)
- Kazimir Malevich (Russian artist)
- Mamoru Oshii (Japanese filmmaker)
- Georgia O'Keeffe (American artist)
- Yoko Ono (Japanese artist and musician)
- Man Ray (US/France photographer and filmmaker)
- The Residents (American avant-rock band)
- Jean Rouch Ethnographic filmmaker
- Patti Smith (New York singer, poet and composer)
- Karlheinz Stockhausen (German composer)
- Vladimir Tatlin (Russian artist)
- Igor Wakhevitch (French composer)
- William Carlos Williams (American poet)
- Edgard Varèse (French composer, later naturalized American citizen)
- Iannis Xenakis (Greek composer and architect)
- Les Claypool (American musician, singer, bassist, film maker, novelist, composer)
- Mike Patton (American musician, singer and composer)
- Frank Zappa (American composer, guitarist and satirist)
- Buckethead (American composer and guitarist)
- John Zorn (American musician and composer)
- Arthur Russell (American musician, singer and composer)
Avant-garde art movements
- Abstract expressionism
- Angry Penguins (Australian modernists)
- Ars subtilior
- Art nouveau
- Asemic writing
- Cinema pur
- Conceptual art
- De Stijl
- Dogme 95
- Electronic art music
- Epic Theatre
- Free Jazz
- Industrial music
- Lyrical Abstraction
- Mail art
- Minimal Art (Minimalism)
- Musique Concrète
- Neue Slowenische Kunst
- Noise music
- No Wave
- Pop art
- Progressive rock
- Situationist International
- Social realism
- Space music
- Theatre of Cruelty
- French avant-garde
- Russian avant-garde
- Death of the avant-garde
- Experimental music
- Quarrel of the Ancients and the Moderns
Unsimulated sex in filmThe depiction of sexuality in mainstream cinema was at one time restricted by law and self-imposed industry standards. Films showing explicit sexual activity were, with very rare exceptions, confined to privately-distributed underground films or "porn loops". Beginning in the 1960s, however, mainstream cinema began pushing boundaries in terms of what is allowed on screen. Although the vast majority of sexual situations depicted in mainstream cinema are simulated, on rare occasions filmmakers have produced motion pictures in which actors were allowed (or instructed) to engage in some level of genuine sexual activity, up to and including sexual intercourse. The difference between these films and pornography is that, while such scenes might be considered pornographic, the main intent of these films is usually not pornographic. Despite this, the release of such films (recent examples include Vincent Gallo's The Brown Bunny and Michael Winterbottom's 9 Songs) have often been accompanied by controversy; many of these films have only been released in their uncensored form on home video and DVD, while the scenes in question are usually made widely available (legally or usually otherwise) through the Internet.
Films with confirmed unsimulated sexual activityThe following mainstream films have scenes with real/unsimulated sex, meaning actors are filmed engaging in actual sexual intercourse or performing related sexual acts such as fellatio and cunnilingus. These scenes have been confirmed either through visual on-screen evidence, or via the actors themselves in interviews.
- Dom kallar oss mods (1968) (English title: They Call Us Misfits) - Swedish documentary showing one or more scenes of unsimulated sex between the two teenage leads.
- Score (1972) - Original version contains scenes of unsimulated gay oral sex. The current release removes this footage.
- Thriller - en grym film (1974) (English title: Thriller: A Cruel Picture) - Swedish film with several unsimulated sex scenes including an anal penetration.
- The Image (1975) - Contains scenes of unsimulated oral sex.
- Through the Looking Glass (1976) - Contains scenes of unsimulated sex scenes including female masturbation, fellatio, and penetration.
- Une vraie jeune fille (English title: (1976) (A Real Young Girl or A Real Young Lady) - female masturbation, close-up genitalia and urination scene
- Ai no corrida (English title: In the Realm of the Senses) (1976) - contains unsimulated sex, oral sex, insertion of an egg into a woman's vagina and sexual contact between a woman and a minor.
- Emanuelle in America (1977) - Several unsimulated sex scenes between extras (none involving Laura Gemser).
- La Svastica nel ventre (1977) - Unsimulated sex with some explicit shots.
- Caligula (1979) - Uncut version of this film includes several unsimulated sex scenes, including penetration and fellatio. None of the big-name actors involved in this Tinto Brass-directed film participate in these scenes
- Immagini di un convento (1979) - Contains scenes of unsimulated sex.
- Spetters (1980) - Contains a brief scene of unsimulated male-to-male fellatio.
- Bare Behind Bars (1980) - This Brazilian women-in-prison film features unsimulated heterosexual sex (fellatio, penetration), as well as several lesbian sex scenes.
- Cruising (1980) - This film features two seconds of unsimulated anal sex during the first murder scene. It is believed that the director's cut includes numerous scenes of unsimulated anal sex, anal fisting, and a golden shower.
- Taxi zum Klo (1981) (English title: Taxi to the Toilet) - Contains unsimulated gay sex and a golden shower scene.
- Caligola: La storia mai raccontata (1982) (Also Known As: Caligula II: The Untold Story) - Several unsimulated sex scenes, including penetration and fellatio.
- L'Alcova (1984) - Shots of masturbating and some brief, unsimulated sex scenes (none of them involving Laura Gemser).
- Emmanuelle V (1985) - Two versions of this film were released: an R-rated version and a hardcore version with several unsimulated sex scenes inserted (none of the added material feature the film's star, Monique Gabrielle).
- Così fan tutte (1992) (English title: All Ladies Do It) - This Tinto Brass-directed film includes scenes of unsimulated fellatio and female genital fingering.
- Camping Cosmos (1996) - Unsimilated penetration of Lolo Ferrari by a figure looking alike Tintin (Claude Semal).
- Idioterne (1998) (English title: The Idiots) - Several unsimulated sex scenes, although director Lars von Trier has stated that body doubles were used for penetrative scenes (penetration censored by animated black boxes in most English-language releases).
- Seul contre tous (1998) (English title: I Stand Alone) - 40 seconds of pornographic film in a film scene.
- Extension du domaine de la lutte (1999) (English title: Whatever) - 30 seconds of pornographic film in a film scene.
- Baise-Moi (2000) - Several unsimulated sex scenes, including penetration and fellatio, involving Karen Lancaume and Raffaëla Anderson.
- O Fantasma (2000) - Portuguese film about a man who becomes obsessed with a licking and leather fetish. One scene of unsimulated fellatio.
- The Atrocity Exhibition (2000) - 30 seconds of X-rated material, unsimulated penetration.
- Hundstage (2001) - A divorced wife visits a sex parlour located in a mall, and performs visible oral sex on a stranger.
- Intimacy (2001) - Fellatio scene between actress Kerry Fox and actor Mark Rylance. It is often falsely stated that actual intercourse is performed between the two leads, but this rumor was dispelled by Fox's boyfriend, Alexander Linklater, who wrote an article for The Guardian about the making of the film.
- La Pianiste (2001) (English title: The Piano Player) - 20 seconds of pornographic film in a film scene.
- Irréversible (2002) - A few brief glimpses of unsimulated sex (homosexual activity at a club early in the movie, a second-worth of fellatio at a party later on). The central rape scene of the movie, however, is simulated.
- Ken Park (2002) - Various sexual acts including fellatio, cunni lingus and an on screen ejaculation.
- Le loup de la côte Ouest (2002) (English title: The Wolf of the West Coast) - Unknown actress performs unsimulated fellatio in an orgy club scene.
- La Chatte à deux têtes (2002 (English title: Porn Theater (USA)/Glowing Eyes (International: English title) Features unsimulated male/male fellatio in several scenes, a man ejaculating onto another and anal sex. (Although the latter is filmed at such an angle it is hard to tell if it was unsimulated or not.)
- Bodysong (2003) - This documentary also includes 60 seconds of X-rated material, unsimulated fellatio and penetration.
- Fallo! (2003) - This Tinto Brass-directed film includes scenes of unsimulated fellatio and female genital fingering.
- Rossa Venezia (2003) - This German sexploitation horror film includes several scenes of high voltage sexual content including unsimulated fellatio and penetration.
- The Principles of Lust (2003) - Some unsimulated fellatio and penetration in orgy scene.
- The Real Cancun (2003) - Several couples in this documentary are briefly shown from a distance and via night vision cameras having actual intercourse although nothing explicit is visible in the released version.
- 9 Songs (2004) - Several unsimulated sex scenes between actress Margo Stilley and actor Kieran O'Brien, including penetration, fellatio and an on-screen ejaculation by the lead actor.
- Georges Bataille's Story of the Eye (2004) - Contains several explicit sexual scenes, including male and female masturbation, male-male fellatio and intercourse, female-female cunnilingus and usage of a double-headed dildo, female-male fellatio and intercourse (intercourse is only visible from a distance in a mirror).
- Kärlekens språk 2000 (2004) - Swedish movie with several unsimulated sex scenes.
- All About Anna (2005) - This Danish film includes numerous nude scenes and unsimulated sex scenes between Gry Bay and Mark Stevens. The film is based on the Puzzy Power Manifesto developed by Zentropa in 1997.
- Inside Deep Throat (2005) - This documentary includes the infamous deep throat scene from the original Linda Lovelace motion picture.
- 8mm 2 (2005) - The US "Unrated & Exposed" version of this sequel to the film 8mm features a scene in which the players visit the set of a pornographic film. On the set, a woman is shown performing unsimulated cunnilingus.
- Kissing on the Mouth (2005) - This independent film shot on a digital camera features many scenes of heterosexual sex (most likely simulated), however contains one scene where an actor masturbates in the shower with a close up of his climax (obviously unsimulated).
- Destricted (2006) - This series of short films includes scenes of unsimulated vaginal, anal and oral sex, male and female masturbation, sex with an inflatable doll, and objects inserted into an anus.
- Shortbus (2006) - Several actors in Canadian film perform confirmed unsimulated intercourse and other sexual acts, including TV personality and singer Sook-Yin Lee.
- Father Knows... (2007) Contains a few shots of erect penises and a brief shot of intercourse.
Films showing unsimulated object penetrationAnother variation on this theme are mainstream films in which digital or object penetration of a vagina is shown. Several of the films listed above such as Romance show this act in addition to the other unsimulated content. Films that also show some sort of penetration (as the maximum explicit content) include:
- Emmanuelle (1974) - in the first film in this long-running series, a dancer is shown inserting a cigarette into her vagina and then blowing smoke out of it.
- Immoral Tales (1974) - vaginal pearl insertion by Marie Forså
- Wild Orchid II: Two Shades of Blue (1992) - in the uncut version of this film, a vibrator is shown inserted into a woman's vagina during one sequence.
- The Center of the World (2001) - there's one brief scene in which porn actress Alisha Klass inserts a lollipop in her vagina.
Pornographic films reedited as mainstream releasesPrior to the advent of home video, a number of hardcore pornography films were released to mainstream cinemas. In most cases, scenes of penetration were either cut out or replaced with alternate shots. One exception to this was Deep Throat, which was released uncensored.
Examples of this type of hybrid release include:
- Alice in Wonderland (1976) - available in an R-rated version
- Café Flesh (1982) - R-rated version of this science fiction porn film was released to mainstream cinemas
- It's Called Murder, Baby (1982) - reissued in X-rated form as Dixie Ray, Hollywood Star.
- Anthology of Black Humor
- Cross the Border — Close the Gap
- Dictionnaire Historique et Critique
- The Facetiae
- The Fantastic: A Structural Approach to a Literary Genre
- A History of Erotic Literature
- Index Librorum Prohibitorum
- Les Vies des Dames Galantes
- The Literary Underground of the Old Regime
- The Misfits: A Study of Sexual Outsiders
- The Pornographic Imagination
- Reflections on the Novel
- The Romantic Agony
- The Rough Guide to Cult Fiction
- Writing on Drugs
- Arcades Project
- A Dictionary of the Avant-Gardes
- D'Holbach's Coterie
- The Intellectuals and the Masses
- Keywords: A Vocabulary of Culture and Society
- Lipstick Traces: A Secret History of the 20th Century
- New Science
- The Poetics of Space
- Sexual Personae
- The Society of the Spectacle
- A Thousand Plateaus
- The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction
- Dreamers of Decadence: Symbolist Painters of the 1890s
- Notes on Camp
- On Ugliness
- The Tears of Eros
- Prints and Visual Communication
- Underground, l’histoire
- Cult Movie Stars
- Film as a Subversive Art
- Immoral Tales: European Sex and Horror Movies 1956-1984
- Incredibly Strange Films
- Midnight Movies
Keywords of culture
- Main fields: art - culture - dance music - dreams - erotica - fiction - film - genre - history - human nature - lifestyle - literature - music - politics - theory - underground
- Sensibilities: absurd - alternative - anti - avant-garde - banned - bizarre - clandestine - controversial - counterculture - cult - curiosa - dark - eccentric - elitist - esoteric - excessive - extravagance - exotic - experimental - forbidden - gratuitous - grotesque - hermetic - hidden - horror - illegal - incongruous - independent - intellectual - irrational - kinky - kitsch - libertine - macabre - meta- - modern - monstrous - non-mainstream - obscure - occult - offbeat - offensive - original - outsider - perverse - postmodern - queer - radical - rare - revolutionary - satire - scatological - sensational - strange - subculture - subversive - supernatural - surreal - taboo - transgressive - travesty - ugly - uncanny - unconventional - underground - unusual - weird - wild
- Themes: aesthetics - architecture - atheism - auteur - avant-gardism - art - body - bibliophile - censorship - counterculture - classic - contemporary - controversy - cult - culture - decadence - design - DJs - electronic - eroticism - experimental - feeling - fiction - film - gay - gaze - genre - grotesque - history - horror - language - literature- mainstream - media - men - meta - modern - music - people - science - philosophy - photography - pornography - postmodernism - science - science fiction - senses - sex - subculture - subversion - symbols - technique - technology - theme - theory - transgression - underground - waste - women - world culture
- Writers: Martin Amis - Georges Bataille - Baudelaire - Borges - Céline - Dostoevsky - Alain Robbe-Grillet - Hoffmann - Franz Kafka - Stephen King - Moravia - Poe - Rabelais - Boris Vian
- Filmmakers: Woody Allen - Pedro Almodóvar - Walerian Borowczyk - Catherine Breillat - Luis Buñuel - Roger Corman - David Cronenberg - Michael Haneke - Juzo Itami - Patrice Leconte - Spike Lee - David Lynch - Radley Metzger - François Ozon - Roman Polanski - Nicolas Roeg - Jacques Tati - Alex van Warmerdam - Michael Winterbottom
- Musicians: George Clinton - Serge Gainsbourg - Kraftwerk - Larry Levan - Lee Perry - Fela Kuti - Arthur Russell - Neil Young
- Visual artists: Arcimboldo - Hans Bellmer - Arnold Böcklin - Hieronymus Bosch - Guy Bourdin - Luigi Colani - Gustave Courbet - John Currin - Honoré Daumier - Gustave Doré - Jean-Léon Gérôme - Francisco de Goya - Hans Baldung Grien - Matthias Grünewald - Hokusai - Alfred Kubin - Tanino Liberatore - Hans Memling - Carlo Mollino - Giovanni Piranesi - Félicien Rops - Odilon Redon - Roland Topor - Andy Warhol - Ettore Sottsass
- Theorists: Aristotle - Gaston Bachelard - Mikhail Bakhtin - Georges Bataille - Roland Barthes - Charles Baudelaire - Simone de Beauvoir - Walter Benjamin - Pierre Bourdieu - Gilles Deleuze - Guy Debord - Denis Diderot - Umberto Eco - Kodwo Eshun - Michel Foucault - Sigmund Freud - Richard von Krafft-Ebing - Gershon Legman - Karl Marx - Nietzsche - Camille Paglia - Marquis de Sade - Peter Sloterdijk - Susan Sontag - Spinoza - David Toop - Parker Tyler - Paul Virilio - Ken Wilber - Raymond Williams - Slavoj Žižek